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Arkansas Catholic
Litlte Rock, Arkansas
November 4, 1911     Arkansas Catholic
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THE SOUTHERN GUARDIAN The Lady nleet a shall st, velnber l are behl second Name F it is "cad )f, ? :1! THE SOUTHERN GUARDIAN PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE CATHOLIC PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF THE DIOCESE OF LITTLE ROCK BUSINESS OFFICE: 315 W. MARKHAM ST., LITTLE ROCK, ARK. V. L. SPALDING, Business Manager SUBSCRIPTION $1.50 THE YEAR OFFIOIAL APPROVAL. The Southern Guardian is the official organ of the dioeese of Little Rock, and I pray God that it ma + he an earnest champion in the cause of right, justice and truth and an ardent defender of the religion which we all love so well. I extend to it my blessing with the sincere hope that its career may be long and prosperous.--John B. Morris, Bishop of Little Rock. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 4, I9tl. CANONIZA TION. Tim term "saints," in its widest signiticance, de- notes all those who actually possess the principle of sanctity---sanctifying grace; or, considering that the Apostles addressed their epistles to the "saints" at Ephesus, at Philippi, at Colossa and so forth, we may perhaps .extend the appellation even to those who, in virtue of the bal)tismal character, have a special conse- cration and consequent obligation of striving after holiness, though they nmy actually be destitute of sanctifying grace. In a narrower sense a saint signifies a person of ex- ceptional holiness, as when we say "he (or she) is a regular saint." However. when we speak of the "veneration of saints" we transcend the boundaries of the Church Mi- itant and the Suffering Church, though all the inhab- itants of Purgatory are truly holy souls, and arrest our thoughts at the citizens of the Church Triumphatat, who possess sanctity as an itmdmissible gift. The fea.4t of All Saints has been instituted to honor them all, that "great multitude which no man can nmnber, of all nations and tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and in sight of the Lamb, clothed with white robes and pahns in their hands." Among them are millions whose names are not found in the calendar of saintschildren who died in their baptismal innocence, adults who, passing away in the state of sanctifying grace, have paid the last farthing of their debt in Purgatory. All these are the chosen saints of God, and our friends in heaven, and while the Church honors them publicly once a year, there is no reason why we may not pray' to them privately at other times. Is it not a legitimate consolation when I tell a mother, sorrowing over the death of her infant, "Weep not; your child is in heaven; your family has an adw>cate before the throne of God." All those who are in a position to intercede for us may be legiti- mately invoked, for intercession and invocation are correlative. But the public cult of the Church, as rendered to definite saints, is reserved to those whose natnes have been officially entered in the calendar of saints. The process of entering a certain person's name in the list (canon) of saints is called canotfization. Canonization does not make, but supposes, a saint; it is an otticial, quasi-infallible declaratmn by the infallible authority of the Church, that a certain person is aqtually in heaven and may be invoked by all the members of the Church as a saint. In the early times of the Church saints were can- onized, as we might say, by general acclamation, viz., martyrs who had shed their blood for Christ and other persons who had distinguished themselves by excep- tional piety, commenced to engage the veneration of the faithful, and thus their names were handed down with the tacit or explicit approval of the Church as the names of saints. It stands to reason, however, that a popular hero of some locality, extolled to the skies by his friends, may not come up to the standard of a real saint. And hence canonization by general acclamation had its drawbacks. It must be ascribed to a special providence of God over His Church, that, in spite of a less strict procedure in the tnatter of canonization, the saints of olden times do, on the whole, not fare badly under the microscopic scrutiny of modern historical research . St. Ulrich of Augsburg is the first who was regu- larly canonized according to modern methods of can- onization. This lappened in the Tenth Century, and during the last ten centuries the process of eanomza- tion has been brought to such a finish of perfection that the possibility of a mistake is excluded. But how can the Church give an infallible declaration that a certain saint is really in heaven? It is'in this matter as in other infallible utterances of the Churchshe ,only possesses what God has revealed. The Church is not satisfied to have ascertained "the soundness of faith and the heroic character of the 'virtues of the servant of God who is under consider- ation for being canonized. At least two authentic mira- cles must have been worked at the invocation of the saint in question since his death. After all things are settled with the utmost severity of tests---sound doctrine, heroic virtues, at least two miraclesone would think that the setttence of catmni- zatkm might be safely uttered. But no; our candidate for canonization is only beatified; that is, a certain limited local cur is decree unto him. Beatification, however, is not meant to be a final thing; it is, as it were, an appeal to God whether He wishes His servant to be canonized. If so, let God give an unmistakable sign. "fvo other miraclesworked at the invocation of the holy person in questionwill bring the matter to a state of maturity and pave the way for the sen- tence of canonization. Inasmuch, then, as God alone can work miracles and the miracles in the process of canonization are expressly asked of God as expres- sions of His will with regard to His servant, it is plain that the infallible declaration of the Church by which a saint is raised on her altars is referable to an im- plicit divine revelation. One hears often the remark that it costs money to make a saint. And it is true; even to such an extent that holy persons with wealthy friends may perhaps sometimes have a better chance of being canonized than their poorer fellow saints. Canon!zation, how- ever, does not affect the hap.p!enss of a saint in heaven. Many may enjoy a greater bhss there than those whose names are known to us members of the Church Mili- tant. Whatever money may accomplish, it certainly will not buy a sentence of canonization; it requires] money just because tim process is so exceedingly strict. ] Long and laborious investigations have to be made,[ deliberative sessions have to be held, and so forth, and] therefore the great expenses of a canonization 'are] rather a proof of its thorouglmess and trustworthiness. I, VIIAT IS VAGRANCY? When a man is a vag or what constitutes vagrancy is a question that seems to need a new definition. We always believed a vag to be a person without visible means of support, who had formed a dislike for work, but who "htt,ag around" and lived just the same. One day last week three men, foreigners, struck Little Rock and before they had been here two hours were arrested for vagrancy mad lodged in jail, and this, too, in spite of the fact that the men had several htut- dred dollars in cash on their persons. Fines and cost and lawyer's fees soon ate up about one hundred of this hard-earned coin, whereupon the men, feeling nmch abused, complained to tim Governor, who de- clared the proceedings an "outrage. '' But the question still remains, Were these men really vags? Should they have been arrested and Im- miliated by being thrown in 1)rison ? Was it right for them to be comt)elled to pay the expense of such pro- ceedings? And, even tliough the Chief Executive of the State seemingly deplored the "outrageous" affair, the most vital question to the foreigners--is: Did they get their money back? We have not heard of its re- turn to them. WHAT IS WRONG? In Thursday's issue of the Board of Trade Bulletin we notice the following conmaent on an editorial which appeared in last week's issue of the Little Rock News : The Little Rock News, the only woman's paper in Arkansas, under the caption of "Public School System," makes public the nmtterings we have been hearing for some time past regarding certain methods pursued in the managenaent. The article says: "Among the teachers of our city schools there is such an undercurrent of restless- ness and discontent that many of them declare they are not doing their best work in the school room." There is nmch truth in the foregoing brief statement. The writer has been talked with on the subject. If the teachers wonld talk to the School Board sotnething might drop, but doubtless they are afraid to speak out in meeting. Little Rock is very proud of its public school system; it is one of our strong drawing cards, and if there is anything wrong anywhere it should be corrected. The best thing to do is to read the News article. Judging from the original article, which appeared in the News, and then from the Bulletin s conament, we come to tim conclusion that there nmst be some- tiring wrong. Listen to what the Bulletin says: "If the teachers would talk to the School Board sotnething might drop, but doubtless they are afraid to speak out in nteeting." If tim Bulletin knows of anything tlmt is about to "drop" it should warn the public. If the teachers have anything that should be communicated to the School Board let them ,"speak up and 'spress themselves." Little Rock and tim local council, Knights of Co- lumbus, have been signally honored by the Master of the Fourth Degree of the Oklahoma-Arkansas district by Iris selection of this city as the place to exemplify the Fourth Degree on Washington's birthday, Feb- ruary -2, 1912 , or about that date, the exact time not having been announced. Every Knight in Arkansas and Oklahoma should do his part in helping Ed J. Delaney make the exemplification a grond success.. If you are not reading the series of articles now running in The Southern Gnardian, "Socialism in the Schools," you are missing one of the best things you have been privileged to read in a long til9e. The first installment appeared in last week's issue. If you failed to read it, hunt up a copy of the paper and do so. If you read the first, the other installments will take care of themselves. Socialism in the Schools [ (Continued From Last Week.) E look forward to aerial transportation because it is the gigantic and uncertain shadow upon the mist of the morrow east by a few daring men who learned yester- day the secret of precariously sustaining themselves in a machine heavier than the supporting medium. If we see in the future the longed-for government of the world by law instead of by brutality it is merely the glorious light thrown ahead by the fact of yesterday that the spirit of peace has made some headway among the rulers of na- tions against the spirit of war. If we dimly see wireless telephones ahead it is-because we can clearly see wireless telegraphy behind. I remember seeing once a great, long spar lying upon a dock in the New York Navy Yard; the butt of it and some ten feet of its length were clearly visible; the rest of it to the tip was hidden in a cloud of steam. Because of what I could see I knew that there was a continuation of that spar in the seam; how much there was I could not tell. The vapor hid all that. It is so with the future. We know from the pastbeeause everything back of the period of this sentence is in the pastwhat has been; we can eonjeeture from the lines that are in the visible past something as to their development in the invisible to be Uncertain, then, as is this basis for conjecture, dim as this light of the past may be, we need every bit of it to guide the race on its patch into the unlighted tomorrow. Deprived of all the knowledge of the past, we should stumble and suffle and in utter blindness and frightful panic slay each other until our mistakes had kindled an- other lamp to light us on our way. Deprived of any part of that knowledge, we lose so much light, and our prog- ress is so much more difficult. Napoleon is quoted as saying, "If there were no God we should have to make a God," I can paraphrase that just as truly and say if there were no past we should have to make a past. What, then, are we to think of the madness 6f social- istic education, which seeks to unmake a past?? What are we to make of a system that seeks to establsh, a false thing by shutting off the light which shows it to be false? No just man can object to an assertion of socialism if it can stand the light of experience. But what we object to is the projection of socialism without that light, No just man will object to the speech of atheism. What we object to is the silencing of the living words that came from a living God. If atheism can stand against the evidence of revelation, then let if stand. But if it cannot stand against that, it must fall; the world will refuse to exclude that evidence because its admission embarrasses the defendant. The rudimentary education is all that most of us get from the public schools. The number of students who go through the system is comparatively inconsiderable. In the primary classes the schools teach geography, spell- ing, and, later, grammar, the basis of arithmetic, and the first lessons in history. Until recently these studies were not limited, and there- for not nmtilated. They were considered originally in their proper relationships. History, in particular, as the study of racial experience, was wide in its sweep. It took in the ancient mythology; it dealt with the Egyptian re- ligion; with the belief of the American aborigine in the Great Spirit. It explained Christmas; it told of the sig- nificance of Easter. It may still deal with the faith of the Egyptian; with the Olympian deities of the Greek; with the Manitou of the Indians, but Christmas is taboo; Eaer is a subject prohibited. No man believes th'ere was ever a Mercury with wings on his heels, but that .may be taught in the schools. Everyone knows there was a Jesus of Nazareth, but that must not be mentioned. It is not hard to see whither all this tends. It means the exclusion ultimately from all the histories of the men- tion of Christ and the suggestion of God. The mere as- sertion that "all natural wealth is due to the beneficence of God" was enough to kill the text book for use in the public schools of Chicago. The logical thing to do. if that be right, is to cut the name of God out of the Declaration of Independence; to publish without it the farewell ad- dress of the Father of his Country; to leave some sig- nificant blanks in the sublime sentences of Lincolu over the dead at Gettysburg. We must be taught that a strange faith sprmmg up in the bosom of Rome and spread over the area of Roman conquest, but we must not be taught whence it came or why it spread. We must be taught that the followers of Mahomet raised their crescent flag against the cross, but we must not be taught what the cross signified. We must be taught that the Crusades poured out the blood and treasure of Europe to take from the Moslem the tomb of the Carpenter, but we must not be taught what was the torch that lighted their fiery faith. We nms not know of the patristic literature, nor of the wave of scholasticism that rolled over Europe, because if we play with fire we shall be burned, and those old controversies were red hot. We must be taught history, but not the meaning of history. Some of the facts of human experience are to be allowed us, but the central fact of human history is to be barred. We may be taught that there were great currents of hu- man thought, but of the greatest stimulant of human thought we must not be taught. The intolerance of socialism in education results, then, not in truth, but in falsehood, or that which is not true. It results, not in more light, but in less light. It takes from the intellect the truth which nourishes it and gives it instead the ignorance which must choke it. Therefore nay first protest against socialistic educa- tion, based not upon my Christianity, but upon the fact that I am a citizen and a taxpayer, is against the ex- penditure of the public funds for a teaching which is in- complete and untrue. I object to the use of the public funds for the propagation of a social and economic re- ligion in which I do not believe; I object to the teaching of the history of the United States with a mutilated Declaration of Independence; to the teaching of world history with the fact of Christianity omitted. There is a second aspect, as I have indicatedthe moral. And in considering this I shall not do so as a Chris- tian, but as a taxpayer simply. I shall base nay protest again upon the improper use of public funds. What is the idea behind the public, school? It is that the public school shall benefit the State; for that reason the State pays the cost. Upon this ground can the pay- ment of the cost by the State be justified? I-Iow are the public schools to benefit the State? By their effect upon the constituents of the State. For the State is made up of men and women and children, and if the State is to prosper and fulfil its purpose the men and women must be intelligent and must be moral. Particu- larly they must be moral. States which have been com- posed of intelligent men and women have fallen apart, collapsed because of their own rottenness at the core; no State whose people were moral ever did so. Some of the most depraved men have been at the same time men of great intellectual power and education. Common hon- sty would solve nine-tenths of the economic and political questions whleh vex us today. It may seem unnecessary to state all this, but it is sometimes the plainest facts of life that we overlook. Your socialist is working on the theory that the State makes the man. Yet the State has never produced a single child. A child is born of a woman, begotten by a man, the product of the family, which preceded the State and constructed the State. Your socialist seeks to destroy the family--to substitute the State for the family. But the family, having produced the child, gives the child to the State; it builds up the State with children. And the State very properly insists that the material which is to go into its structure shall be molded and tem- pered for the work it has to do. For the State is an active structure, not an inert structure. It is a machine, not a house. What effect, then, must the schools have to carry on the purpose of the State? Must they  turn out graduates, intellectually acute or morally upright? Tim answer to this question is the answer to another what is the purpose of the State? We are dealing with this State, the American Union; what, then, is the purpose of this State? Where shall we seek the double answer, the envelop/ng answer? It has been written for us. Fortunatly we need have no doubt about it. It speaks in the opening lines of the supreme law of the land, the Constitution of the United States. Here it is: "We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect opinion, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourslves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." To provide for the common defense and promote the generahwelfare may be regarded as political and material purposes, both of them necessary to the insurance of do- mestic tranquillity, and that in turn necessary, as a ma- terial fact, to the formation of anything like a perfect union. But there are two purposes plainly stated, the estab- lishment of justice and the securing of the blessings of liberty for the present and for the future. These things have to do with the moral province; they reach into the domain of ethics. If history teaches any lesson it is that an immoral people is never a free people. "Eternal vig- ilance is the price of liberty." Eternal self-sacrifice is the essential of eternal vigilance. Cont/nnenee is the guar- dian of mental and physical strength. The self-indulgent are the slaves of the world. Greece, believing with a real belief in false gods; was a conquering and a free Greece, a Greece of Spartans, a Greece of heroes. Greece, believing in poetry and phil-J osophy, talking virtue and practicing self-indulgence, be- came a slave Greece in which nameless crimes were wrapped in the silken robe of literature. It is unnecessary to seek other illustrations. No sys- tem of ethics that had behind it no living faith was ever effective in curbing the evil inclination of human flesh. We mmw of no written statute that will enforce itself. There is on earth no automatic law. Behind every statute with which the courts deal there must be the living au- thority of tbe government. It may be a popular govern- mcnt, but it must be a real government; it must be alive and not dead. Likewise there has been no ethical code that has ever been worth its paper which did not have behind it the authority of a living faith. The good of the race never made a man live a blameless life yet. The good of his soul has made millions live such lives. "SelfishF' your socialist will cry. Perhaps. But do not" too harshly condenm selfishness. The patriot who.a, gills his heart's blood for his country's sake spills it, after al, for his country and not for someone else's. The mart6,r who goes to the stake for his faith endures the torture for his faith, and not the faith that is not his. Selfishness may be base, but selfishness may be sublime. It is the root of self-indulgence, but also a root of self-sacrifice. In a world into which each human being is born to work out his own destiny selfishness must be the basis of every motive that impels a man. Are the American people, as a result of socilaistic edu- cation, morally better than they were some years ago? That is a question each man must answer according to his own experience, tf he is inclined to be gloomy about it; to be discouraged by the nmnberless disclosures that have followd the investigations of public and private business; if he has reached tbe conclusion that dishonesty is the rule in private business as well as in public business, who can blame him? If he finds popular applause controlled by what a man has and not by how he obtained it; if he knows that a day's ilhtess will lose a two-dollar-a-day laborer in the city's employ his day's wages, while a highly-paid official may be ill for months, and as a result absent from his desk, and lose nothing; if he finds that there is throughout society a fear of mere money which could not exist if justice were estab/ished and the purpose of the Constitution carried out, is he to be condemned for concluding that the money the State spend on its public schools is not bringing an adequate return; that the in- strument the State employs, and the only instrument it can employ to establish justice, is not doing its work? Thoughtful men have realized this for years. The Roman Catholic Church has realized it and has withdrawn its children from a godless school The other churches have slowly come to the same conclusionone Protestant Episcopal church aloue maintains nine day schools in the city of New York. Great students and educators like Dr. Hodge of Princeton have seen the danger and have pleaded with the people to meet it in some way. Even men outside the church, champions of the godless school, are realizing it and are suggesting tbe teaching of ethics as separate from religion in the public schools But here again we meet the old difficulty. It isn't in- struction we need in tiffs matter; it is inspiration. It isn't to learn what is right and what is wrong; it is to be in- spired to do what is right and not to do what is wrong. ,And if ethics are taught as a science and not as an in- spiration, how are they to be taught except by the pre- cepts of the masters? The teacher must have his au- thority from somewhereit cannot be left to each in- structor to determine what is right and what is wrong. He must teach what the ancient moralists, the ancient philosophers said; he must marshal the thinkers of the past --Confucius, Diogenes, Plato, Cicero, Shakespeare, Eras- mus, Moses, Tolstoi and all those who sought to make a moral system foi" mankind. And is he to leave Christ out? Is he to teach what Plato says of morals and leave out what Jesus of Nazareth said? Is he to quote from the Vedes, but leave out the Sermon on the Mount? Is he to summon to his aid all the teachers but the Great Teacher to enforce his precepts with all authority but the Supreme Authority ? And if he does, what then? The dead code, the code of morals of Greek philosophers, was Iike their statuary, beautiful but cold, excitative of admiration, but not of emulation, 'designed for ornantentation, but not for life. Perhaps this is not the place to state just what we need in this country, but we shall state it nevertheless. We need good citizens. If we have those we shall have good public officials and good government and good business. A good citizen must first be a good man. If he is a Jew he must be a good Jew; if he is a Christian he must be a good Christian. What is the public school, paid for by public funds, do- ing to make good citizens? It isn't teaching God, because socialism doesn't want God. Marx sensed the weakness of his theory; he knew that death, the final fact of this world for each human being, gave the lie to a promise of a heaven on earth, and that if he would take the minds of men off the more important life beyond the grave he must convince them that there is no such life; that if a man is to have any heaven he is to have it here. The attack upon the family is due to the same cause. Man cannot be happy upon earth if he knows he is to lose some loved one; therefore he must have no loved onesthere must be no family. The public school isn't teaching any ethics that are compelling, because unauthoritative ethics are never com- pelling. But it is teaching something. Every once in a while the newspapers give us a hint of the logieal developments of the socialistic tendencies in education.' A few weeks ago, for instance, there was some indignation expressed by one of the old-fashioned ministers of the old-fashioned faith because of a discussion by the teacher betore a class of girls of 14. The subject was the relationship between Lewes and George Eliot. The teacher sought to "explain it according to her view of it. She gilded it with the genius of the novelist whose sin it was; she tried to spir- itualize it because the sinner was an intellectual, even if , the sin was just a plain in. If the Superintendent of Education had any objection to such a discussion 'in such a place I have not heard of it. If the teacher has been dis- missed from the service I have not seen the fact publishd anywhere. mu In fact, that incident seemed to cause little distu/e of any kind: The pastor of one of the girls wa's indimat, but the public seems to have become too much accusted to the modern "liberalism" of our schools to let so .$'lht a thing shock. The tendency of socialistic education is toward such discussions, and if there were no other symp- tom of the rottenness of the philosophy that should be sufficient. For it is more than a coineldence that most of the great apostles of socialism have a kink on the subject of sex--Ferret, Gorky the Russian, a Professor Herron, Who put away his wife a few years ago in order that'he might preach what he was pleased to call Christian Social- ism while living upon the wealth" of a "soul mate." There is a long procession of them, who made rather a boast oof them, who rko worked them tbhat they became proof of, "free thought," of defiance of slavish conventionalism. (To Be Continued Next Week.