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October 27, 1991     Arkansas Catholic
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October 27, 1991

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ARKANSAS CATHOLIC OCTOBER 27, 1991 PAGE 11 "Brazil,', from page 1 days because of his support for peasants in a dispute with cattlemen and lumbermen. In 1975, the go~mment threatened him with eXpulsion after a television network reported he was inciting farmworkers to violence. In 1989, Bishop Casaldaliga's name was on a l~razilian deathsquad "hit list," released by the l~razilian bishops' conference. Bishop Casaldaliga said he was pleased that the pope dedicated an entire homily to an appeal for land reform, but the bishop did not agree with the pope when he said people should n0t "invade" the private property of others. "Several bishops have said people have a right to occupy certain land in nuxl or urban areas," he said. "It's not invasion, but occupation It's ~0t legal, but it's legitimate." 'The government won't institute land reform (programs), so the people have to do it them- sek, es," he said. Grass-roots organizations of lamtlem pea~ allts have been occupying and cultivating un- ~d farndand. The kJllings have occurred when the landowners try to reclaim their prope~. Bishop Casaldaliga said Pope John Paul's ~aany ~ps, especially those to the Third World, enable him "to see with his own eyes" the chal- lenges local churches face. It gives the pope a better understanding than "the Vatican bureau- crats" have The bishop said that just as there is a sodo- economic First World and Third World, there is a "First World church" and a 'Third World church." 'The church of the First World doesn't op- press the church of the Third" as its economic counterpart does, he said, "but a little more understanding could be helpful. The Vatican is part of the First World," he said. Bishop Casaldaliga said the pope's speeches in Brazil have been "well balanced," taking into account that his message is directed not only to Brazilian Catholics, but to the Brazilian govern- ment and to First World government and finan- cial institutions. The Pope told the bishops-, which has the largest foreign debt of any developing counuy - $120 billion - that no cotmtry should service its debt at the expense of feeding its people. "I must say with force, so that it reaches the whole world, that the foreign debt of a country can never be paid at the price of the hunger and misery of its people," the Pope said. Population (1990)" 150.4 million. Portuguese, Africans and mulattoes form majority. Official language is Portuguese. Geoqraohy -- 3,286,470 square miles. Covers nearly half of South America. Fifth largest coun- try in the world; larger than the contiguous 48 U.S. states. Religion -- 129.6 million Catholics (1989). Nation with largest Catholic population in world. Economy-- Per capita G N P (1987) estimated at $2,130. Richest 10 percent of Brazilians re- ceived 53.2 percent of all income in 1990; poorest half of population shared 3.5 percent. Church facts -- First Mass celebrated April 26, 1500. First diocese erected 1551. Pope John Paul II first visited Brazil in 1980.13,900 priests in Brazil -- one for every 9,306 Catholics. Sources: The Statistical Yearbook of the Church, 1991 Catholic Almanac, The 1991 Information Please Almanac, The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1991. 1991 CNS Graphics From nun to terrorist --- By [nes Pinto Take wrong turn Washington (CNS) - Nelly Evans de hlvarez Calderon, 47, was a nun with the Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary arid a teacher at one of the most exclusive Calderon, who is believed to have joined Shining Path in 1983. Radu said Ahrarez Calderon was captured by PenMan pofice in the 1980s for suspected The path to terrorism by Laundry & Cleaners 917 Main Street Pine Bluff 535-0623 schooLs in Lima, Peru, in the late 1960s. Today, she sits in a Peruvian jail await- former clergy or women re- ~g trial for her work as Comrade Rene, a li0ous is not uncommon to leader of S hin, ing Path, considered to be * Dry Cleaning 411 latin America s most brutal terrorist group, well-educated women in a * Laundering Its targets in recent months have in- male-dominated society such lh' *SpotRernovalfdl eluded priests and nuns. In AugusL two Polish priests were abducted and killed by aSPeru. Shining Path, angered over their opening ~f a charity center in the Diocese of involvement hi the terrorist organization, 12hirnbote In May, the group shot and killed five people, including an Australian ttn, in a remote AJMean village. What led Alvarez Calderon to become ~Volved in Shining Path is a question many eruvians will try to dimover in her upcom- ~g taM, not yet scheduled. The path to terrorism by former clergy % Women religious is not uncommon to Wegedueated women in a mabdominated but hter was released because ofinsufl]dent evidence. But in February Peruvian pofice raided the home Aharez Calderon was renting in an exdusive Lima neighborhood, and she and 17 other suspected terrorists were ar- rested. Peruvians were said to be shocked by the arrests because they showed links between Shining Path and Peruvian intellectual, upperdass and religious sodety. The move- ment was long seen by most Peruvians as one of the poor classes. The me'st was important for Peruvian offidals who have stepped up their war against Shining Path. Ak,arez Calderon is considered to be one of the orgmfizafion's top three leaders in Lima and ks likely to be one of the main organizers of file gToup's inffastntcttu-e, Radu said Women play a veW important role in Shining Path, representing 50 percent of its founding members, Radu said. About 70 percent of the women are between 20 and 30 years old, he added. Seventy percent of Shining Path women have studied at the college level compared to 50 percent of die men in the organiza- tion, according to a 1980 study called Youth and Terrofima by Dennis Chavez. Shining Path was founded in the late 1960s by Guzman, a former philosophy professor. The organization, with about 5,000 members, has been blamed for more than 19,000 deaths since 1980. COAR -- Comunidad Oscar A. Romero -- Zaragoza, El Salvador COAR is a special project serving the children affected by the violence in El Salvador Founded in 1980 to serve the basic needs of hundreds of children still living in a society of violence and injustice but learning to building their lives in an atmosphere of peace and love. Administered by the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, Houston. ~iety such as Peru, said Michael Radu, a ident scholar of the Foreign Policy Re- Search Institute in Philadelphia. He has 'itten several books on Shining Path. Radu contends that well-educated iOnlen in many male-dominated sodefies COme desperate because they do not get e ~me opportunities as their male coun- ~ ,rl~'ts. The desperation prompts women enter the world of terrorism, where they at',ain - high-ranking tx)sitions and are noto- qOus for their exlreme x4olence and high eVel of commimaent, he said. p~Alvarez Calderon and her twin sister, try, were born to a middle-class family in eru and attended some of the best ._hools L,ima. From 1968 -70, she was in a forma- _ 13 program to be a nun with the Servants Inunacuhte Heart of Mary in Phila- _ elphia. She went on to teach at a girls' ul in 1.4/na where she remained even ter lea,, g the order in the early 1970s. What happened afterward is unclear. Ac- %rding to Peruvian authorities, she mar- ried a former priest, Carlos Alvarez Yes. I want to help the children of El Salvador's Civil War. I will give a month. I help COAR Children's Village with this single gift of Namc Address City/State/Zip Telephone Donations may be sent to: COAR Peace Mission, Inc., 4395 Rocky River Drive, CLeveland, Ohio 44135 . ........ , .,, . . ,