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Arkansas Catholic
Litlte Rock, Arkansas
October 2, 1920     Arkansas Catholic
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October 2, 1920

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x Note ifleme Esteban Murillo, wanted no such Union; that as an al- j,  a8 the painter of the Im- ternative they would prefer the teen Ol'nl oI  once)'i ...... " 11  : I t on. 1turn at evme actment of the penal laws. By 1810, 111 vclle]'aL I December 31, 1617, only through his ability and persistent ac- ;aCoafn::rt: d:gm:ol:fmtleltivity, especially that displayed at -- ed " ,P. . " . _.Y [ meetings of the Catholic Committee, .:-.1 T : Ior tnal; counl;ry, hiS I Jb'l. OC.:8,  seems to have been fore-t he had become the most powerful of tl]Dtlal DIeS y the fiestas which took the Catholic leaders. Then it was he receive it  native town before his ] sent out a circular inviting the people t receive i art was certainly influ-Ire form local ommittees in corres- ed at a Nu e time and environment in ]pondence with the Central Committee. ubric ri-!v. ed" I The government proclaimed the meet- '" life, the purity and happi .... .lB.. Imgs of these committees but the mag- -- ch is reflected in the gen- . . , .[l.t Imitates m many cases refused to say lass}eter of his paintings, was ...... tttY within the confines of I carry out ne proclamations ann wnen .|and beloved Madrid When some of the members of the Dublin sa Mass . Y .3hes he set off on a jour- committee met and were arrested, ,y precepdy the great masters, "but O'Connell successfully defended them. Lted to coI!.arther than Seville, where " Sir Robert Peel. ?eople to 1[ot, Velasquez secured hi: In 1812, O'Connell first locked horns holy da, ges of the royal galler'e , with Sir Robert Peel, then the new privilege] had an opportunity to chief secretary of Ireland, and from Works of Titian, Veronese, . . , , . ell ]lone c and Rubens, as well as' that time until 0 Connell s final wc- on God to a virg: Joseph, o of the th Gos ;spoused fe. The solemn eSSOS aIld: sband and [ the sali ag us that we read ear not t t which lelasluez himself. He re- iblc that t!Seville in 1644 and left it Josc Once, in 1681, when he to Cadiz to paint an altar Alke we 1" Puchins which he never , fall from his scaffolding, illness--authorities dif-! aeocunts---caused him to Medly to Seville, where he a brief period of suffering Vas the national painter of Where all sentiment was in that of: religion. He a religious painter, for exception of a few per- Corse genre pieces, not one etUre of his is known to instinct and gift of story- him to treat many of the tives and these he does Which shows that he un- at the true language et the true language of the _ 0table among these works ntine we ligal Son" of the Hermi- claims o] as treated the theme of te Conception more than fitted th$  without ever repeating , - ithout ever wearying. Six callea he claim . atbeMsdrid'knownSiX ntis Seville,in the ot depe others are scattered in als. prelects ,of Europe. As th ortance ical doctrine of the Im- tals. T] aaception naturally ex, rial representation, the :ic of Cg 0sen was" the theme .of minenes ion. The pictorial treat- essentiali rdo a o have been determined, outlines, by a vision Franciscan monk in the StOry and many examples tory the struggle for Catholic rights was largely a duel between these two able and determined men; the one the champion of privilege and asceend- ancy and the other of religious free- dom. Catholic Association. In 1823, with the avowed object of winning Emancipation by legal and constitutional means O'Connell found- ed'the Catholic Association. In order to evade the Convention Act, the As- sociation assumed no delegated or rep- resentative character. In 1825 it had spread so widely that the government, fearing its power, passed a bill sup- pressing it. But O'Connell, skilled in defeating just such measures changed the name to the New Catholic Asso- ciation and the work went on. Brink of Civil War. In 1826 the Association was strong enough to put up a candidate in Wat- erford, who was elected. Victories followed in Monaghan, Westmeath and Louth. Then in 1828, came the Clare election in which O'Connell himself was nominated. As a Cath- olic, lie could not take the Parliamen- tary oath, but he had guaged well the effect of driving him, a representative of 6,000 000 people, from the doors of Parliment. He refused the oath. The Parliament. He refused the oath. The] ] Catholic millions, organized and deft- I Orangemen would have no concession and Ireland was on the brink of civil war when Peel and Wellington gave way and in 1829 the Catholic Relief Act was passed. mpt to  al pov'e d ; among earlier paint- In Parliament. iLterest to American Cath- To recompense him and to secure ......... ?aq, a'l ll-size mosaic copy o his services for Parliament, the people -0 [e LT_ famous .treatment of induced him to abandon his profession P te Conception, the gift and to accept the O'Connell Tribute, ed.ct XV and the first la voluntary subscription of 1,600 roll 1[ Lits kind to come : h:lpounds a year that he might repre- ha , is to be placed " sent them. His great work then was National Shrine of " 'e 1 Conception at the in behalf ofrepeal and he established The mosaic will l the Repeal Association, which, though famous workshop slow in progress at first, madedecided 2ATHOIIC CHURCH O'Connell, the Great mtor. C. News Service.) strides in 1842 and 1843 when a series of meetings addressed by O'Connell, attracted hundreds of thousands. The last of these meetings, held at Clon- tarf in October, was proclaimed by Sir Robert Peel and O'Connell was convicted and :imprisoned. The House of Lords reversed the decision of the Irish court and he was freed, but his health was broken and the doctors or- ' f Catholic emancipation the story of the genius of Daniel O'Connell.' the first Irishman to litical power that lay I neglected masses of i " Facing the tradi- I of the British and] y of three hundred I down barriers that dering him to warmer climate, he set out for Rome, where he had expressed She desire to die. He got no further than Genoa, where shortly before he expired he declared: "I will my body to Ireland, my heart to Rome, and my soul to God." Catholic Apologist. O'Connell was not only eminent as [an astute politician, a masterly era- to surmount. elief Act. was bern at Car- rciveen, in 1775, and the bar in 1798. At of Ipenal legislation already a serious lade in the penal of remedial meas- the Catholic Relief l mli( were, in many on a level with other they Were still ex-! ] from the from the higher tary offices. Against' O'Connell protested. should demand favors, but as their on the pub- 1800, he denounced Union, which he de- Ireland's separate aid that Catholics tor, and a resourceful attorney, but he [achieved no little reputation as a I Catholic apologist. IIe published a tract on the Itoly Eucharist and two against the Methodists. In the first of these he demonstrated the impos- sibility of a Protestant making a sin- gle act of Divine faith, With the mere assistance of the scriptures, interpre- ted according to Prote'stantism. Re- futing he calumny of the Methodists that the Church was opposed to the diffusion of' the Bible, he proved thai in the interval between the discovery of printing and the so-called Refor- nmtion there were printed by Catho- lics not less than eight hundred differ- ent editions of the sacred writings, of which two hundred were in the spoken tongues of Europe. God has no need of years to perfect His labor of love in a soul. One ray from His Heart can in an instant make His flower blossom forth, never to fade.The Little Flower. THE GUARDIAN, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 2, 1920. i Communications How to Profit by Benediction. To the everlasting Father, And the Son who reigns on high, To the Editor of "The Guardian": With the Holy Ghost proceeding Possibly some of your readers may Forth from each eternally, profit by the following suggestions Be salvation, honor, blessing, on how to assist at Benediction. They Might, and endless nmjesty. Amen." are taken from "Our Parish Inter- In the versicle and response we pro- ests," published by the Rev. Dr. Mc- claim our remembrance of the Gift Mahon for the benefit of the congre- that transcends all hunmn apprecia- gation of Our Lady of Lourdes, New tion, the heavenly Bread which is York: Christ's body prefigured by the "With all our books of devotion, manna of the Old Law: there are probably many of us at a "Thou hast given them bread from loss how best to employ those pro- heaven (alleluia). cious moments. We are told, and Having in itself all sweetness (alle- rightly, that no prayers at Mass can luia)." rival those of the Missal; that there The prayer (which, like the "0 is no more excellent way of assisting Salutaris", and the "Tantum ergo," at Mass than by joining in those off]- is taken from the office of "Corpus cial prayers of the Church herself. Christi") is an earnest plea for the Now, if we examine the hymns and grace of such a reverent disposition Canticles and prayers which the usage of mind and heart towards the Ador- of the Church has sanctioned for the able Mystery of the Eucharist as will Benediction Service, we shall find in secure for us the abiding fruit of the these' also the most perfect expres- Redemption--union with God in time sion of the sentiments and disposi- and in eternity tions with which this devotion is in- Let Us Pray. tended to inspire us. If there is con- O God, who in this wonderful sacra- gregational singing in which we can ment has left us a memorial of thy join, so much the better. But in any passion, grant us, we beseech thee, case he Latin hymns and canticles so to reverence the sacred mysteries are so brief and simple that it will of thy body and blood, that we may well repay those of us who do not continually find in our souls the fruit understand Latin to familiarize our- of thy redemption: Who livest and selves with the singularly appropriate reignest world without end. Amen. sentiments to which they give expres- During the few precious moments sion. while the officiant ascends the atlar, "The 'O Salutaris' which is sung takes the monstrance, and gives the while the Blessed Sacrament is being blesisng, no set forms of prayer can exposed in the monstrance, is a sup- be as appropriate or efficacious as pliant appeal to the Saviour, Who short fervent acts and aspirations qf has reopened heaven for us, to help our own in our own wordsacts of and sustain us when hard pressed by adoration, gratitude, love, sorrow] the heavy trials and ills of life; fol- self-abasement--nor forgetting a fer- lowed by a hymn of praise to the vent supplication for any special Triune God who is to be our endless grace or favor we feel particularly reward in Heaven.', ni need of. It is not a time for any The following is Father Caswall's fixed formula of prayer ;and, anyhow, translation of the "O Salutaris,,: no form of prayer is so welcome to "0 Saviour Victim! open wide the Heart of Our Divine Lord as the The gate of hear'on to man below! outpouring of our own hearts, the Sore press our foes from every side Thine aid supply, thy strength bestow simple ,earnest, sincere expression of our own present feelings and needs in the language prompted by these at To thy great name be endless praise the solemn moment when He is bless- Immortal Godhead, One in Three! ing us. Oh, grant us endless length of days, While the Divine praises are pro- In our true native land with Thee! claimed ("Blessed be God," etc.)after ., Amen." the blessing, our aim should be to feel The incensing of the host symbol- izes the offering of our fervent prays- ors and reverent worship to the Eucharistic God. The "Tantum ergo" has become, by invariable usage, the Benediction hymn of obligation. It is an exultant profession of faith triumphing over sense, faith in the unseen Presence which has supplanted the shadowy types and figures of old; and at the same time a chorus of joyful praise and worship of the Adorable Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost. The subjoined version is also by Father Caswall: "Down in adoration falling, Lo! the sacred Host we hail; Lo! o'er ancient forms departing, Newer rites of grace prevail. Faith, for all defects supplying Where the feeble senses fail. and will them with our whole souls while our lips give utterance to them. The service usually closes with the singing of a hymn--often in the ver- nacular. A very common and most appropriate chant is that of the psalm, "Laudate Dominum omnes gentes," preceded and followed by the antiphon, "Adoremus'." Antiph.Let us adore for ever the most holy sacrament. Ps. 116. O I)raise theLord all ye nations; prais him all }e people. For his mercy is confirmed upon us: and the truth of the Lord endur- eth for ever. Glory be to the Father, As it was in the beginning . Amen. Antiph.Let us adore .... GEORGIA DOES IT. in From a most effective e itorial the Morning Star of New Orleans, we cull the following true perceptions of the "Polecat of the American press" recently nominated for the U. S. Sen- ate, by Ithe "Georgia "Crackers" and backwoodsmen, politically known as Democrats. The Morning Star editor says: WATSON'S RECORD. "The immeasurable depths to which the great State of Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens, qeneral John B. Gordon, Joel Chandlerl Harris and Henry Grady has sunk are pitiful to contemplate. In electing Tom Watson to the Semte Georgia h(ts placed its stamp upon a man who stands for the repudiation of the rights and privileges granted by the Constitu- tion of the United States o the peo- ple in the free exercise of their/re- ligious rights; a man who stands for the abrogation of the Constitution in denying to the Catholic citizenry of hi country their rights and privi- leges as citens; a man whose sole purpose in life has been to stir up religious hatred, bigotry and antago- nism mnong the peop]e of his State and country; a man who, calling him- self an American, failed in his most sacred duties to his country and flag and did all in his power to advance the cause of the enemy when every man with red blood in his veins re- sponded to the call of our beloved flag and the glorious principles for which it stands; a man who was for years the editor of the vilest skunk paper in the United States, a paper which was finally compelled to cease publi- .ration because of its traitorous atti- 'rode to the United States Govern- ment at a time above all others when [aith and loyalty were needed. Scandalous Campaign. Finally, Geor Senate a man whose outrageous, dis- reputable, scandalous anti-Catholic t eampaigns for many years, whose reckless, unscrupulous calumnies against the Catholic Church, the great Pope of Rome, his illlustrious representative in this country, and the Bishops ,priests and Sisters of the Church are so vile and diabolical that the very name of Tom Watson is a stench in the nostrils of decent Amer- ican citizens, irrespective of creed. Vile Publications. His vile, anti-athoilc publications, teeming with filth and abuse of the Church, and breathing the mouth of hell, have been scattered broadcast through the lar/d. The United States mail was made the sewer and vehicle for the purveying of this filth and mud and calumny against the purest and noblest men and women who con- stitute today, Mnd especially consti- tuted during the war, the greatest force for law and order, patriotism and loyalty in this country. "Polecat" Editor. This "polecat" editor stirred up other skunk journals which declared that the streets of this Republic must run red with blood in order that the Catholic Church may be driven from this land which her children helped to make free. This is the man whom Georgia has nanmd for the Senate, this the traitor to ,the United States whom Georgia has "called back" to represent her in the distinguished Senate of the United States.' ' MODERNIST RETURNS. It is reported that the Rev. Dr. Igo Koch, formerly professor in the- Lyceum at Braunsberg, and a Catho- lic writer of distinction ,who left the Church during the Modernist t.roubles, has named for the has been reconciled. PAGE FIVE "CAPITAL AND LABOR." (By Doctor Ryan, for N. C. W. C.). Social Dept.) Father John A. Ryan, D. D., Direc- tor of the Social Action Department of the National Catholic Welfare Council, has written a timely pamph- let on "Capital and Labor." The pur- pose of the pamphlet is to seek meth- ods Of harmonizing the difficulties that arise between capital and labor. Identical Interests Generally. "The interests of capital and labor are identical in a general way and in the long run, but not at every point of their nmtual relations nor at every moment of time. In general, it is to the common interest of capita} and labor to make their joint product as large as possible; for the greater the 'dividend, the'greater will be the shares of both. This proposition, is true of every case in which the pro- portion of the whole product obtain- able by labor is fixed at the outset of the productive process." Because, however, this is not always the case there are times when it is to the in- terest of particular groups f labor, who have a monopoly on a particular type of labor, to diminish production, stretch out the working time, and ex- pand the total amount of wages. But if all kinds of workers were strongly organized and were to attempt this, the general decline of production would lower the standard of living and harm all the workers. Divided as, to Product. "The interests of labor and capital are not identical in the division of the product. The greater the share received by labor the less will be the share of capital. This is a mathe- matical fact. Inasmuch as the mate- rial interests of capital and labor are identical in some respects and op- posed in other respects, the duty of every lover of peace and justice is to emphasize and extend as far as pos- sible the field of common interests and to reduce to its lowest attainable dimensions the domain of antagonistic interests. The most effective means to this end would be religion; for, as Pope Lea XIII declares, it reminds 'each class of its duties to the other, and especially of the obligations of I justice. ''' At the present:, however, "on " " ly a mmomty of either capitalists or laborers ask themselves sincerely and searchingly the question: -'what does justice require of me in this con- troversy with the other party to the industrial contract ?'" . Contact Necessary. Lack of contact between the em- ployer and his employees compels the employer to treat his men as "a col- lection of productive units." But per- sonal relationship can only be restored in the typical business concern of to- day through organization and repre- sentation. Representatives of the owners can meet with representatives of the employees to restore the lost personal relationship of the old-time business firm Labor Union Oldest Type. The oldest type of organization is the labor union. Dr. Ryan in ex- plaining words of Pope Leo on the right of organization says that they "mean in practice that labor organiza- tions should be accorded the right to chose freely, without restriction by employers, the persons Who are to represent them in their dealings with the employers. As compared with capital, labor has always been the weaker party in negotiations about wages and other conditions of employ- ment. To attain a position of approx- imately equal bargaining power, la- borers must act as a body, and the individuals who represent them in the bargaining process must be the most effective that they can find. Such rep- resentatives are generally the officers of the unions." More skillful in bar- gaining and not dependent on the I giaces of the employer for their live- I lihood, 'they help to make the bar-I gaining power of the employees and] employers less unequal. / "While the national trade union, or labor union, is still necessary for the protection of the workers, it has cer- tain definite and considerable limita- tions. Its function is to defend the interests of the employee against the aggression or the obstinacy of 'the employer. Of itself, primarily, form- ally, the labor union is not concerued with a larger product or a better product." ( "Today, more than ever before, the great and immediate need of society is for more and better products. This need cannot be met except thrtough the willing and honest cooperation of the worker. His industrial position must be so modified that he will find him- self n some degree a partner in the enterprise rather than a mere execu- tor of orders, or animated instrument of production. In modern industry, where the operation of an industrial unit requires the concerted action of many person, the exercise of direc- tive capacity by the worker can be ob- tained y through and cooperation. The question is not whether the worker shall be an em- ployee or the manager o fa small shop or a small farm. It is whether he shall be a mere executor of orders, or whether lie shall participate, in common with his fellow-workers, in some of the operations of manage- merit. It is mainly in the industrial or productive department of a busi- ness t, hat labor participation in man- agement can become beneficial to em- ployees or employers." The ordinary instrument of partici- pation" in' management is the shop committee. The men have a contribu- tion to give to the methods of work and this contribution the shop com- mittee allows them to give. The shop committee is not ,however, a substi- tute for a union, and even if it is in- tended to be such, it will not long re- main, under the domination of the employer, for "no form of labor as- sociation can remain long under the control of the employer, or of any power other than that of the em- ployees themselves." The domain of the shop committee and. the labor union is distinct and at the present time the two should supplement each other. "All the advantages of labor par- ticipation in management can be in- creased and supplemented by a system of labor sharing in surplus profits." "The long discussion of these de- vices has been dictated by the con- viction that a considerable change in the industrial status of labor and in the relations between lab4- and cap- ital is inevitable. Labor will insist on the change, and capital will in the long run profit by willingly acquiesc- ing. Cooperation and partnership be- tween the two great industrial groups must take the place of conflict and dependence. The most effective means to these ends seem to be labor shar- ing in management and profits." "So much for the common interests of the two industrial parties. As al- ready oted, these apply only to those processes and relations which are in- volved in the making of the product. As regards the division of the product, the interests of capital and labor are mutually opposed. While labor par- ticipation in management and profit sharing would considerably soften the conflict over the division of the prod- uct, it would no and could not solve the problem." There follows a discussion by Dr. Ryan of the right division of the product. The discussion is brief and inconlplete, giving the more impor- tant principles such as the right to access to the earth's sources of live- lihood under reasonable terms and conditions, the right of decent liveli- hood from work, the right of some to more than a decent livelihood, and the right of stockholders to the pre- vailing rate of interest, after decent wages to labor have been paid. In connection with the rights of stock- holders, Dr. Ryan says: "The stock- holders have other means of liveli- hood than their interest-income--they have their capacity to work. If the workers are compelled to accept less than living wages in order that the stockholders may obtain the normal rate of interest, the elementary needs of the former, their need of food, clothing and shelter will be accounted less important than the desires of the stockholders to enjoy life's luxuries and superfluities. Therefore, justice requires that the owner of capital should not receive interest until all the workers have obtained remunera, tion equivalent to a decent livelihood. ' As for the right of all employees to something more than mere living wages, it is impossible to say, accord- ing to Dr. Ryan, if the money is to come from the consumers. Nor does it seem reasonable that the stockhold- ers should be deprived of their noraal rate of interest to pay all the workers with more than living wages. As for a surplus, however, labor should be preferred "for it is impossible to prove that the capitalist, merely as capitalis, even has a strict right to interest in excess of the prevailing rate. Probably the ideal plan, from the viewpoint of both equity and ef- ficiency would be to distribute the whole surplus among all who perform labor of any sort in the operation of ihe concern, whether they are or are not gt the same time stockholders." Other statements of interest" on hours and worldng conditions are added and arbitration of industrial disputes is emphasized. The pamph- let is available for a nominal sum from the offices of the Department of Social Action of the National'.Catho- lic Welfare Council, 1312 Massachu- setts avenue, Washington, D. C. CATHOLIC NAVIGATOR. The admiral of the fleet that first sailed around the world and the dis- coverer of the straits which bear his name, Ferdinand Magellan was Catholic.