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July 24, 1920     Arkansas Catholic
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July 24, 1920

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"F ? PAGE EIGHT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CATHOLIC SENSE IN EDUCATION Most Timely and Instructive Article by Rev. Dr. Pace of the Catholic University at the Catholic Educational Convention--Proper Catholic Sense Gives Proper Diocesan Spirit Which Gives Us the Proper Catholic Spirit. The subject of this paper has a se- cial significance at the present time when the w.orld is strugglirjg back to i order and the buihters of the social structal:e are so, eking a sure founda- tion. It is only in.the Catholic Church --in her teachings and principles-- that such a foundation can be laid. This has been made so clear by the utterances of Pope Benedict "and it has been so strongly emphasized by our Hierarchy in their recent Pastoral Letter that further argument or in- sistence would be superfluou:. Response to Call What is neded, however, is an emest and vigorous response to the call of our ecclesiastical rulers. Their wm'ds of exhortation and warning Will have practical effect in proportion as the minds of the faithful are quick- ened with a really Catholic sense, with what the Pasto'ral sets forth as the "Catholic spirit." In fael, we may say that the chief aim both of the Pastoral Letter and nf the organization el- fatted by the Hierarchy is the devel- opment of the Catholic sense and through it the co-ordination of all our Catholic activities, for it is evident that an ckternal unification of our forces will be of little avttil unless it be strengthened by the be'rid of the[ Spirit. - , [ Church Looks to School. [ On the other hand, the duty and[ privilege of developing that spirit I lies, in great measure, with our{ Catholic educators. To the school, in[ particular, the Church looks for such I an instruction aml training, of herl children as will imbue them not only I with know)edge of her doctrine and] laws but also with that abiding qual- I ity of mind which we characterize as the Catholic sense. To impart this, to intensify and direct it, sho pld be] the ultimate propose of our teaching. I Unless that pro,prise be attained, our[ efforts, however successful in other re-I t e spects, will fall short of what th I Church expects. We must provide I knowledge and secure the develop - men{ of power and fit our pupils for citienshi p. But what we have to do above at else is to inform the mind, to permeate it, o fill it through and through with such habits and dis- posigons that it will think and feel and act in unison with the Catholic Church. Doing thls we shall accom- plish, in marked degree,, the purpose for which our schoolh exist. We shall o-operate efficiently with the aims of our Hierarchy and realize, so far as in us lies, the express desire of the Holy Father. What Is the Catholic Sence of Edu- cation ? Since we are now dealing with a matter of common interest, let us at once endeavor to reach an understand- ing as to what is meant by the Catho- olic sense in education. " Agree- ment on this point is obviously needed before we can formulate plans or methods of development. And it is all the more necessary because the words "Catholic sense" are open to so many different interpretations. Individual Mind. First, then, as I now understand it, the Catholic sense is not the col- lective thought or belief of the Church as authoritatively defined, but rather the attitude of the individual mind loyally accepting and faithfully re- flecting what the Church teaches and enjoins. To that consensus it is re- lated eomewhat as the virtue of faith is related to the sum total of revealed truth. And as faith so considered is the habit of each believing mind, so the Catholic ense is a mental habit of the individual Catholic. Ready for Action. Second: It is not a separate faculty or mode of activity, co-ordinate with oter pvwers. It is a disposition of the soul which impregnates the vari- ous faculties of cognition and fe!ing and action. Primarily, ttbaffects per- cap{ten and judgment. It is quick to detact the bearing of events, situations and movements upon the welfare of the Chhrch. It appraises them by tandards which the Church has es- tablished in her doctrine and law 'From discernment and judgment it passes into Joy, or anxiety, into hope or fear, into satisfaction or indigna- tion, according as the interests of the Church are advanced )r imperilled or hindered., With feeling astir yet under the conol Of Judgnent, the Catholic sense is ready for act on looking for a sign from the leaders, eager to co.operate, happy in what] others accomplish for the cause. Like I charity, it envleth not, is not puffed I up because, In the sight of what the] Church [uires, all else imams - ai all else of value only so far as it gives proof of de- votion to the Church. Not Local. Third: The Catholic sense is not confined to the interests of the Church ]in any one place or section or coun- try. It is free from the "weakness of localism" which the Pastoral de- plores. It concerns the Church. It includes in its view all nations, races, all problems and issues and under- [takings, whenever and wherever Catholic interests are at stahe. How- ever humble in its own station, how- ever modest its space of entleavor such a mind realizes that it is one with the great body of Catholic be- lievers and united with them under one Head for the achievement of the highest and holiest aims. Fourth: The willingness to set aside personal considerations and advan tage. if the good of the Church de- mand such a sacrifice. The Catholic sense is a disposition of the individual mind, but it is not self-centered or self-seeking. It lifts the individual above himself yet preserves his in- itiative, stimulates his abilities, conse- crates them to the service of religion. This devotion which eliminates selfish- ness and absorbs the individual in ,orthier pursuits for {he,furtherance of God's kingdom, is an unmistakable evidence of faith and zeal. It may fairly be called the triumph of the Catholic sense. Fifth: The Catholic sense springs from love of Christ's Church. This it is that kedps perception alert, steadies judgment, kindles feeling, prompts, di- rects and sustains action. It goes be- yond what duty prescribes, but it does not go blindly or recklessly. It fol- lows the guidance of intelligence, it grows with knowledge, it widens out sympathy and it holds enthusiasm true to the path which lawful author- ity marks out. It does all this because it sees in the Church the continuation on earth of the mission of Christ. It realizes with St. Paul tlat the Church is the very body of Christ which He so loved that He gave Himself for it, purclmsing it with His blood. The Catholic sense, therefore, in the last analysis, is the manifestation through thought, feeling and action of the love which the Catholic heart is kindled for the Church as it is for Christ Him, self. Its Development. How, then, is this Catholic sense to be developed ? We might answex fortl,ith: by all those means which build up the Catholic life in general; by instruction from the pulpit; by the reception of the Sacraments, by prac- tises of devotion, by enlisting the faithful in various works of charity. These indeed are essential; but just now we are interested in the eduea, tional phases of the problem; and so our question takes the fom: What shouId be,done in the school to de- velop the Catholic Sense ? What meth- ods and agencies should be employed ? What modification, if any, is needed in organization,' curricula or text books ? Attitude of TeaCher. I shall not attempt to answer all these question, because I think that some of them will be more readily and more satisfactorily answered by teachers in wom the Catholic sens has developed along with their edu- 'cat{anal experience. For it is quite ilain that the attitude of the teacher is of .vital importance in this as in all the other activities of the school. I venture to say that in some respects it is more important for the develop- ment of the Catholic sense than it is for any other educational purpose. In handling the ordinary subjects, a teacher of abilit may apply methods taken ovsr from non-Catholic systems and apply them to good effect without any reference to things Catholic and consequently without in the least arousing the Catholic sense in the pupil. Such instruction will have its uses; but it will not serve our ,pur- pose-' It has too much of a neutral tint. t Showing Superiority. A teacher,  on the contrary, who combines with ability the Catholic sense, will find countless opportunities to awaken that sense in her pupila Now by explicit statement ad again by suggestion she will impress the minds of 'the children with those characteristics of the Church whiclt attract admiration and love. She Will show both in ]ler own work and in I her references to other systems the, superiority of Catholic education as at preparation for complete living, She[ Will avoid the mistake, which is stilt co: : tims, of loo.Mng or even [ of to purely ulkr systems' THE GUARDIAN, SATURDAY, JULY 24, 1920. as the only course of perfection, the]so, by acquainting the pupil with what one detriment of values and the final the Church actually is and does, we I SALYATION OF THE specting the nation we vm% God grant that J E W S fused the Light of themselves emain in authority whose approval is to be won stir him with virtuous pride in the at any cost. She will discern, with fact that lie is a Catholic. This, of her Catholic sense, just how far it is course, is a very simple procedure; The First Called, Our Savior's Hear{ death. safe to go in bargaining for advan- nothing more than a statement of Must Desire Israel to Return Their Great rages, which, in the long run, may facts For that reason, perhaps, it is and Adore. From what race have prove detrimental if not fatal, to the not always followed out in any nat- sprung? Can history very cause for which her school ex- ure of completene::,s. But it would be I Many may ask: "After all, why[ men, than those whose isis and to which she has been con- interesting to learn just how far the shouht we pray for the conversion of life was to announce secrated by the Church. average high school pupil, for in- the Jews? We have no interest in to keep the memory of them, and they appear worthy of in the minds of the none." It is for the ptlrpose of mak- in reading the prophecies ing this point clear that the present witil the divine spirit article is written; for right-mindedlfrth" When Israel pec)ple are generally open to convic- with love =nd the Promised One be tion. ]Jesus Christ will be God's People. The first reason then is found in the God and their King. fact ttmt the Jews are God's people. The Long ago, He chose them and "called Over the whole earttb them by His Name." Over what other have Christian Nation did His loving care extend the good tidings. But even to the minutest details of daily life ? "Non feeit taliter omn, nationi." In all their wanderings, in all thei r trials, Ged's Providence watched over them. His Mercy and Jnstic: pur- sued them, even as the mercy and jus- tice of a ldnd father pursues a be- loved but wayward son. To them God revealed the secrets of His eternal desig'ns. "He hath made His way knoxxm unto Moses, His will ' " II to tlm Chlld'en of Israel (Ps C .) For their sake. He scattered Nations. "He suffered for their sakes. And He brought forth His people with joy, and His chosen with gladness." (Ps. CIV.) Tternal Love Truly God loved them with an etemal love. Were this not enough to touch the heart of Christians the new people of God, then could be brought fmvar(l I the plea that Christ's mission on earth I was the Salvation of His Nation: "It have come but for the lost sheep of the House of Israel, qhis does not mean that our Lord willed to save the Jews only. No; but His Apostles wouhl see to the rest of the world after His death. Jesus' special work was the conversion of the Jews. Did this work succeed? Humanly spealdng it was a failure. He died on the Cross derided by those He had come to save. and His Sacred Heart pierced by those He loved. "He came unto His own, and Hs o-n re- ceived Him not." What We Owe the Jews. To you then, ell Christians, He has left the task, you must continue what Jesus has begun. By your prayers hasten the time when God will have pity on the people He has punished for a while. They m'e wanderers on the earth, yet they know it not. Some have returned to their God, but many are still ,-ffar. In all countries they stray, they recogniz not the Seviour, and they are exiles from their native and. What do we owe the Jews? Jesus hrist was of the Jewish race. It follows then that in His Veins flowed the blood of that ancient ation-- identical with that of the Patriarchs and Prophets. The Hebrew people to- Narrowness The avoidance of such errors is no sign of narrowness. We all recog- nize that our Catholic schools can be improved. We give credit freely to everyone who contributes somewhat to the progress of education. We do so] the more confidently because we know I that as regards the basic principles of] education we. are in the right. It is I through the application of those prin- ciples to the details of our work that we will /reprove our schools from within and adapt with greater profit,[ the good things that come to us from other sources. By this means also we shall prove our consistency in making religilms and moral training the cs.. sentials of Catholic education. It is good and necesary that we admit our shortcomings. But we need not go in the way of Esau. The Question nf Method. Training now to the question of method, I would first not that the de- velopment of the Catholic sense should proceed from the fundamental princi- ple underlying all tz!e education, viz., that teachingmust be adapted to the needs and capacities of the growing mind: We do not expect that sense to have the same form and manifestation in the child as in the adult. It must develop from the germinal phase in the mind of tte child to its full-blown power in the man and the woman. It must unfold in accordance with the laws which govexm mental develop- ment as a whole. From first to last, it must vitalize all the items of knowl- edge, of literature, of art, or of the social order. Religious Truth. In his books on the teaching of re- ligion, Dr. Shields has shown how the germ of religious tth are implanted and how they develop along with other kinds of truth. In particular he has shown how love for Jesus is to be made the centre of the child's thought and feeIing. By the use of the same method,' we can arouse in the child that love of the Church which is the vital element in the Catholic sense. Those instinctive tendencies which lead the child to love its parents, to look to them for food, protection, remedy and the models for his ira{to- at{on, are to be modified and trans- formed in such wise that they will gather the powers of the mind about the Church. Let the child come to think of the Church as providing the bes/things both iu the spiritual and in I the temporal order, as safeguarding] our highest interests, as binding up] the wounds of mankind and as pre-] senting examples of the noblest type. I Let these aspects of the Church be of-[ fered to the child, not in the abstract] terms which I am using, but in forms general good. day are the same as in the olden days Preamble of Love when Christ traversed their cities, ,I pass over such familiar topics as I blessing" and healing their little ones. the 'influence of Caned Law on Civil To the Jews, Jesus is related in a human way, more closely than to stance, has gra::ped the idea of the Church a. a world-wide organization antt as an agency in every department of human welfare. Do Good to All I{ is important to emphasize the beneficent work of the Church in sup- plying the temporal needs of mankind. There are many, no daub{, who would have the Church concern herself wifl only spiritual interest. But such an idea is both foreign aod detrimental to the Catholic sense. Our pupils should nnderstand that the mission of] the Chure]l is primarily a spiritual t mission, identical with that of her] Founders, and furthernmre, that she[ has abundant means for its fulfill- ment. But again, as the Pastoral' (leelares, the Church, like her Founder, "has gone about the world doing good to all men ;and with Him the Church can say: 'the works that I I do in the name of my Father, they I ,give testimony of me . . . though yol[ will not believe me, believe the works.'" Christ wcought His mira- cles to supply the wants mr to relieve tle suffering of hmuanity. At the same time, as manifestations of :His power they bore witness to His divin- ity, thus inculcating a profound spirit- ua! tnlth. In the same spirit, the Church, in conferring tmnporal bene- fits, aims at lifting up the souls of men to the higher spiritual plane. Temporal Beuefits. By "temporal benefits" are to be understood not only those which befto our material condition, but also those which meet our aspirations for such blessings as freedom, peace, justice and knowledgc-the very things or. which humanity is actually striving. In respect of these the Catholic sen m is enlightened both by knowledge of the constitution of the Church and by the lessons of history. Take, fr illustration, the need, so keenly felt at this time, of harmonizing persenat liberty of government. The only soD- tion of the problem is the princ)ple of authority embodied in the Cath,hc Church and its righ;fui exercise fo'. which the Church ha comb;ne'i through centuries as again, t the va{'i- oa forms of despotic power. Take aain the meaning of democ- racy which is now so widely discussed. Set aside the excrescences, the er- rors and the abuses which the term has been made to cover, and bring to view the real nature of democracy. It can easily be shown that dhmocracy in the true sense rests on principles which the Church has consistently ad- vocated. It can be made plain even to children that ther9 is no democ- racy of a safe and lasting sort un- less each citizen observe the moral law and make some sacrifice for the others, and in the Blessed Sacrament, where are present the Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Christ, we .find again the blood of the Jewish people. To the Jewish race we owe Jesus arid so it follows that from them also we derive the Blessed Sacrament. To Ctholics the Holy Eucharist is the epitome of their religion. Withoutdt, our Churches were so many bare halls; but with it, life itself becomes changed and endurable. Pray for Them. Devout Christian, when before th Altar, do not neglect ,to pray for the Jews, that they, too, may adore the more e ...... : Hidden God', the Emmanuel, ,the God :ntu: ?:v: r $"the/ wth us. . ...... [ Exponents of The greatest teasure me nurcnl ..... peazlng o tiae , possesses after the Blessed Sacra- ,,,, whic h vlt [ment, is without doubt the Bit:go..The [S':";hn" of "'God' : Holy Scriptures have been guarded by . h.chs of the Ci her With the greatest vigilance, for] h .... +..,A,,.v,.,dso ...... Ii "" r" 0" et ................ mey contain e we as of ti a. Y "This church is o s this Bible, so justly the object of our for many years ha veneration and pride has been.written from firs to last by Jews, and by Jews alone. No other hand but that of a Hebrew has contributed one pass- age; the Holy Ghost dictated the eternal truth to Jews alone. Do we ever think of that? If the world boasts of its literature; if the writings of the Ancient Greeks and Romans are marvels of beauty, what can be said of the Book of Books? Even those who believe not in the divine inspiration of the Sacred Scriptures, admit that they surpass in beauty and literary merit all other writings. Respect for Nation. It is no, however, from this stand- point that we consider the subject to- day. To Catholics, the Bible is not merely a classic; it is sometMng hgh - er and nobler. In it. {ha earth found the promise of the Messiah; in it are recorded the Life and Miracles, Pas- sion and Death of Jesus, the Son of David. Here then is another reason for re- evangelization of the swer is, Twelve poor I Apostles have a, :'omp greatest miracles ever  0 Iman. these men, wh , }cept;on were to lay dc for the Faitl% belonged whom many de,pise. then we owe the Faith, lion. of souls. First How great must be the Savior's Heart to fohl, those who were whose ears bare been sceching vmce of that they may soon ing invitation offered mere may be zealous i and that the Priests tereste(I in this nation prayers at the Italy ascend from the altar of God. for Israel. Glory of the But their (lay is glory of the nation on with the sin of' country shines the temple hears their bears the Sacrifice of the day will come and. come when "The converted, the Jacob, to the mighty The day will come, for when the Sons of glory of the Church:' blossom and bud; and the face ef the world XXVII. 6.) To Kneel Oh hasten the time kneC at the feet of with us the they shall look upon' have pierced and for Him as ,one Son."--(N. D. S., in MOTION An $800,00 motio pony is being ,with ,lames Sevin, Vatican Choir,, to (tent and general Flaherty, Supreme as vice president; treasurer, and John B. C. National Publicity  retary, to be known ture Company. MEXICO GOOD WILL (Continued irons ' paigns against These churches it is already been of their pastors anal are now, in use. "Excelsior" officiall informed by that "all. churches ones more to the and those in est pulpit orators. Father Maltrana by his notable spinet{rods in times in French or want of this church felt." It is worth statements, whatave are .aluable as , that the people of the return of their in another, publieatiO be exponents o;f ought to preserve prestige,, and they and desecrated by followers. Of all ways the happiest of life is so secure of good ing the circle o$ --Rev. Joseph PATRONIZE OUR accommodated to the child's capacity in each stage of his development. He will grow steadily in that ove of the Church, which is the essence of the Catholic sense. This the main thing: to have the fhild think and feel as a child about the Church; to have the youth think and feel as youthl and to have the adult thifik and feel with the wider knowledge and deeper in- tensity of mature experience. We do not want to load the child's mind with formulas that have no meaning for him; nor do we want the adult mere- ly to recall childish ideas which he has long outgrown and which are as unrelated to his actual experience as are the toys of his earliest years. The Church should rather be for him an inexhaustible object of study, attract- ing him, delighting him and strength- ening him as his powers develop and his views of life expand. Religious Truth. Such a presentation of'the Church at successive Stages of the pupil's de- velopment, falls, naturally, within the subject of religion. Where this sub- Jct is taught in accordance with right method, religious truth is correlated with other kinls of knowledge, so that even if it be taught in separate classes it is not isolated either in the teach- ing or in the learning. Applying the same principle of ocrrelation, the teachers of other subjects establish at every point such a connection between these subjects and some feature in the life of the Church that the thought of any subject brings forward the idea of'the Church. Appreciating the Church. An important phase in this process ia that by which the pupil is helped to realize the greatness of the Chffrch in 'ber present condition; in her or- ganization extending to every part of the world; in her laws, her institutions of learning her social activity and her missionary labors. Let the pupil u- dertand in it fullness the meaning[ of the word Catholic and appreciate] his dignity as a member of tthe graitd-[ est organization oa earth. AS we in. ] spire patriotism by dweiflng on the things tmt'make our Country great, Law, the preservation of the classic texts, the founding of universities, the development of painting, sculpture: architecture and music. The plainest historical statement of the facts re- garding these things is a tribute to the Church. What I wish to point out is this: The Catholic who realizes how much the Ch'urch has done to civilize and refine the world cannot fail to ad- mire her; and admiration, in this case, is the preamble to love. IS DANGEROUS TO ALL EUROPE. Continued from 1age 1.) westeru Europe from the north. May Force Europe The most hopeful view of the situ- ation is that the Bolshevist success on the Polish front will at least force the western European governments to take a decisive attitude and once 'and for all determine whether Bolshe- vism is to be tolerated or whether it is to be kept entirely within Russian borders. Plight of The Poles Putting aside the question of poli- cy the situaion existing in 'Poland s one that should arouse the sympa- thy of the-orld. The swarms of refugees fleeing before the advancing Bolshevists in the direction of the Polish cities are constantly growing more dense. American workers re- port that the gravity of the problem presented by these unfortunates, har- assed by years of warefare and now plunged into further hardships, can- not be exaggerated. Tha Polish peo- ple are the victims of the great strng- le betweqn the east and the west, btween the disintegrating influences of Bolshevism and c0nstitted gay- eminent. I The divine gates swing on small inges and are moved by a touch. Theodore Maynard in "The Catholic World." !