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Arkansas Catholic
Little Rock, Arkansas
May 20, 1911     Arkansas Catholic
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May 20, 1911

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eag, THE SOUTHERN GUARDIAN ill ill THE SOUTHERN GUARDIAN PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE CATHOLIC PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF THE DIOCESE OF LITTLE ROCK BUSINESS OFFICE: 315 W. MARKHAM ST., LITTLE ROCK, ARK. RT. REV. J. M. LUCEY,V. G., A.B. WATERMAN; Editor Business Manager SUBSCRIPTION $1,50 THE YEAR OFFICIAL APPROVAL. The Souflern Guardian is the official organ of the diocese of Little Rock, and I pray God that it may be an earnest champion in tile cause of right, justice and truth and an ardent defender of the religion which we all love so well. I extend to it my blessing with the sincere hope that its career may be long and prosperous.--John B. Morris, Bishop of Little Rock. SATURDAY, MAY 20, 191I. FINE WORK OF LOCAL PAPERS. The Arkansas Democrat, our Little Rock evening paper, brought out on the 12th inst. a beautifni F.e- union edition in magazine form, which presented the commercial and social side of Arkansas in relation to the event. The Arkansas Gazette, our Little Rock morning paper, had a splendid enlarged edition of countless pages, containing very many articles of spe- cial merit by distinguished writers, in fact the whole Confederate history of Arkansas, happil3 condensed, was given. These papers deserve mui:h considera- tion from our citizens. It is said that Rome ;,nd Greece appear so grand on the pages of history be- cause they had historians to chronicle their great deeds. Without the artistic and comprehensive ac- count of the Reunion by our newspapers, the event would be shorn of nmch of its greatness. 8 88 MOB VIOLENCE NOT DEAD. It is a disgraceful thing to chronicle that in spite of every effort on the part of the Governor of the State and our judiciary department to the contrary, mob law is still lurking everywhere in Arkansas. A few days ago at Farrell, 17 miles south of Little Rock on the Missouri Pacific Railway , a nlob entered the coach that was bearing the negro Sanders, ac- cused of nmrder, and forcibly took him from the officers who were carrying him to the penitentiary. He was one of a mob of negroes led by a white man named Rhea, who had brutally nmrdered an officer of the law near Dumas. Upon reflection it was seen that the negro was a necessary witness for the eonling trial. But what a stigma is cast upon our State! How senseless are mob leaders! 8 88 AFFAIRS IN THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The thirty-ninth annual session of the Episcopal Church of Arkansas assembled in Christ's church Litle Rock, on the Ioth inst. Some time since Bish- op Brown, the Episcopal Bishop, put forth what he called "A Level Plan of Church Union," in which he declared against apostolic succession any more than the Methodist, Presbyterian or other Protestant Churches may claim. Three-fourths of his clergy are opposed to him on this point and they seem to incline to broad Cllurch principles. Bishop Brown having called for a coadjutor Bishop, Dr. Winchester, of Memphis, was elected and will probably accept tbe office. Bishop Brown was granted a two-years leave of absence from the diocese, which means his practical retirement. 88 8 DIVINE RIGHT--PAPAL INFALLIBILITY. There is only one person in all this world whom Catholic faith has decreed is entitled to claim that he rules his kingdom by right divine, directly received from God himself, and that ruler is the Pope of Rome. It is true that his kingdom is a spiritual one, but it is the largest and most varied in the world. All other rulers in the exercise of proper authority de- rive their powers to rule in their several spheres from God, but only indirectly, through some hmnan me- dium: parents by virtue of legal marriage; civil magistrates by legalized elections; kings, emperors and others by the forms of law duly recognized by the people through their official representatives. But the Pope of Rome receives his jurisdiction over the kingdom of God on earth, the Church of Christ, di- rectly from the Son of God. Christ, our Lord, said to Peter: "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build nay church and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it." Again our Lord said to Peter: "To you I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven, etc." The giving of the keys of a city in olden times was the symbol of the be, stowal of full control over it. Again we read that Christ said o Peter: "Feed my lambs, feed my sheep." Doctors of divinity tell us that "to feed" as used here, in its Latin and Greek sense, means to govern, to lead the sheep to fertile pastures, protect and guide them. Thus our Lord gave Peter control over the entire Church. Once it is understood that Peter and his succes- sors in office have complete jurisdiction over the en- tire Church, people and pastors, the powers of the Pope of Rome beconte distinct. In tile government of a people, there is in every form, whether a relmb - lic or a monarchy, three departments: executive, legislative and judicial. According to Catholic belief all of these departments of the Church are central- ized in the supreme head the Pol)e, so that the Pope of Rolne has power by divine right to rule as chief executive of the Church of Christ; to make laws in a supreme legislative way and as supreme or chief justice of the Church to interpret them. In a respect it may be said of the Pope that he is the Church. This explanation is the keynote of the infallibility of the Pope. When Pope Plus IX pro- nmlgated the doctrine of the Blessed Virgin he exer- cised his rights as chief justice of the Chttrch. Day by day the Pope has been using his executive and legislative powers and rights. Once the idea set forth here is fully grasped, there can be no logical difficul- ty about understanding tile l)ripcil)le of papal infalli- bility by any one who admits that the Church of Christ is a divine and infallible institution. But all this does not mean that there is no need of general councils of the Church when all the Bish- ops of the world meet in solemn convention under the presidency of the Holy Father. So long as hu- man life retains all its complications of race, political and spiritual divergencies, there will be as nmch need for occasional eenmenical cotmcils of the Church as for national, provincial and diocesan councils. All these are parts of the machinery of the government of the Church and will remain to the end of time. OUR CONFEDERATE REUNION. The gathering in Little Rock of the hosts of the South is a memorable event in the history of Arkan- sas, and from all accounts of the reception and en- tertainment of the Confederate Veterans, Sons of Veterans and associated organizations, that we have heard, there never has been in the twenty-one Re- unions which have been held a more satisfactory and perfect one in every respect than that which has been held here. It is a matter of congratulation ,and ev- ery citizen of Arkansas should feel proud of the fact that so mighty a throng could be received and enter- tained in so small a city as Little Rock, whose white polmlation is about 4o,ooo. The nuinber of visitors was 46,ooo the first day. The third day that figure had more than doubled, the exact figures being IO6,OOO veterans and friends, and 2o,ooo people from neighboring towns. The Auditorium, a pleasant temporary frame structure richly decorated, held 8,ooo, on Tuesday morlmlg when Gen. G. W. Gordon, the Commander- in-Chief, called the convention to order. At Camp Shaver, located in our beautiful and convenient City Park, over II,OOO veterans receive(] free board and lodging. Some months ago tim committee on this feature of the work wrote to get an estimate from each State Commander of the nmnber of veterans expected to take up their quarters at the Camp, and the aggregate returns were about 4,ooo, which has been the usual number at other Reunions. The com- mittee made preparations for 6,ooo and had nearly I2,OOO. "I'laere is said to be a device by which IO men can be pnt into 9 beds, a man being in each bed, and the committee seemed to have found it. The United Sons of Confederate Veterans and the Confederate Southern Memorial Association held their annual meetings.. Various other associated com- nfittees held meetings, the General Memorial Associa- tion for the erection of monuments to the Confed. crate Women of the South and the State Memorial Association. The message of President Taft to the Veterans was very gracious and highly appreciated. Gen. G. W. Gordon, Conmmnder-in-Chief, with the Commanders of the North Virginia, Tennessee and Trans-Missis- sippi Deparunents, sent a grateful return message to the President in the name of the United Confederate Veterans of the South and all related organizations. Altogether the vast throng of i2o,ooo visitors, veterans and families, Sons of Veterans and fam-- ilies, Sponsors, Maids of Honor and Chaperons, were entertained m a royal manner and will no doubt cher- ish for many years the memories of their visit to the City of Roses. A total estimated at I4,978 veterans, was indexed at the various Division headquarters. This is not the exact count, as many delayed to index. Of this nurn- ber II,OOO were given free quarters and meals at Camp Shaver. The count of the Sate registration at 6:3o P. m., on the x7th, was: Arkansas, 4,973 ; Alabama, 6I 3 ; Florid,,. (/.x) ; Georgia, 1,25o; Kentucky, 653; Maryland, 575; kiis- sssq)pl, Loso; Missouri, 1,o36; ; Louisiana. 6t5; North Carolina, 327; South Carolina, 237; Oklaho- ma, 452; Texas, 2,383; Virginia, I39 ; West Virgini,, 93; Forrest Cavalry, 482; Total, 14,978. ARKANSAS LAYMEN'S CONVENTION. All arrangements have been made by the Execu-. live ,Committee for the meeting next Monday and Tuesday of the Arkansas Catholic Laymen's Assccia- tion. About 15o delegates were present last year. and as the ratio to congregations was raised it is expected that the assemblage this year will very much exceed that number of representative Catholic laytneu of the State. All pastors have a warm welcome to at- tend and hear the good things of the occasion. Bish- op Morris will celebrate Mass at St. Andrew's C'th- edral at 9 a. m., Monday. The delegates are re- quested to assemble at St. Andrew's Hall, Sixth and Louisiana Streets, at 8:45 a. m., to marcia in a body to Mass. The sessions of the Conventiop will he held in St. Andrew's Hall. ROMAN CHRONICLE. Tomorrow afternoon, April 3o, at 4:3o Mgr. Kenndy, Bishop of Add- anopolis and Rector ot the NOrth American College, will bless the two bells that have hecn offered to the church of St. Marcellus by a commit- tee of ladies in the Unted States. This perhaps will be the only com- menmration throughout the Catholic world of a centenary that might t, ave i half previously, in 64 A. D. by Nero. of them sequestrated. On May I, This last persecution was inaugurat- 305, Galerius deposed his colleagues ed on February 24, 3o3, at Nicome- Diocletian and Maximinianus, and dia, the capital of the Orient, by a the persecution ceased throughout Decree, signed by the four Roman the Western world, but it was con- Emperors, which was to have put an end to the Christian religion. Here in Rome at the close of that year Diocletian and Maximianus erected their arch of triumph to com- memorate the destruction of Chris- tianity: Christiano nomine deletol tinued with unabated ferocity for five years longer in the East, until Galerius sated with blood, convinced that he would have to slaughter more than half the Roman Empire to carry out his purpose, and afflict- ed with a loathsome disease which heen expected to call forth endless but a few months later, on April x7, rejoicings and erudite historical dis- 3o4, during the feasts of Ceres, the quisitions. For on April 3o, 3II A. Roman rabble petitioned the Emper- D., the Emperor Maxmianus Galeri- or Maximinianus to complete the ex- us publshed at Nicomedia the De- termination of the Christians "for the tree which terminated throughout felicity of the world," and the tor- the whole Roman Empire the era rents of blood began to flow again. of the pagan persecutions of Chris- All the Christian churches were cen and a razed to the ground and the sites paralyzed him with fear, published the Edict.--Rome. The papers publish several of tile articles of the Portuguese Separa- tion Law. In extravagant tyranny they surpass even what might have been expected of the Provisional Govermnent, Public worship is ,to be exercised not even by cultural as- sociations but by Associations Bene- ficenze, which are purely civil socie- ties, and from which all priests and bishops arc rigidly excluded ! Cllurches, both those existing at present and those that may be built in the future by the free offerings of the people, are to pass to the State wthout any compensation after ninety-nine years. At least one-third of the money raised for the purposes of religion is to 1)c devoted to puhlic beneficence. Except in churches and cemeteries it is fobidden to expose in auy pul)lic place, even on the fa- cades of private houses, any sign or emblem of religion. One of the ar- ticles of Chapter V runs thus: "Not only is the Government tim owner of all existing churches, of which it leaves as mauy as it thinks neces- sary for religious purposcs, hut by law all the churchcs which have he- longed to the Jesuits can no longer be used for worslfip and they will be turned by the Government to other uses." Article I77 runs as follows: "It is forbidden to the Portuguese ec- clesiastical citizen to exercise public worship in Portugal if he possess only the academical titles of philoso- phy, theology and canon law taken in Rome, and if he have his diplo- mas fo theological studies made in Portugal it is forbidden for him to go to the Pontifical Universities to take degrees there. The Portuguese protestant ministers may take their theological titles in Protestant Uni- versities." Article xSI contains this provision: "It is expressly forhid- den to publish in places habitually or accidentally destined for public worship or m other public places, or even to print in newspapers or separately the bulls, pastorals, and other acts of the Pope, bishops, or any other directing body of religion until they have been presented to the Minister of Justice, and received his permission which he nmy deny at his pleasure." Some newspapesr have announced this year that the Papal Nuncio at Brussels, Mgr. Tacci-Porcelli, has heen appointed also Internuncio to the Hague. The news is ahnost true, for if the Belgian Nuncio is not act- ually nominated Internuncio to Hol- land he has been charged to conduct the diplomatic business of that coun- try with the Holy See for the pres- ent. And thereby hangs an inter- esting tale. Twelve years ago the Czar of Russia astonished the world by inviting all the Powers, great and small, to meet together at the Hague to devise means for a general dis- armament. At the time he was a young man full .of hope and courage and sincerity, and oppressed with the knowledge that the civilized world was wasting part of its best energies and imperilling some of its best in- terests n accunmlating the forces of war. At the time Leo XIII had reached the apogee of his greatness; he was respected and revered by the whole world; his word and his influ- ence were an imntense force for good and to Leo X/II Czar Nicholas turned for assistance for the success of his great plan. Nothing short of the reumon of Christendom could have given more satisfaction to the Pontiff, and he at once promised to co-operate with all his strength in the project. 8 But both the Pope and the Czar failed to reckon with the petty jeal- ousy of the men who were then re- sponsible for the government of It- aly. With the Pope to inspire and strengthen it the first Peace Con- ference bade fair to produce stupen- dous results for the peace of the world, but under such circumstancs the success of the Conference also meant an increase of prestige of the Papacy, and Admiral Canevaro, the Italian Foreign Minister, was con- vinced that anything than shed lus- tre on the Pope put Italy into the shade. The result was that the Czar was informed that if the Pope took part in the Conference Italy would be ohligcd to stand aside. From that moment the meeting at the Hague was doomed to the failure that has followed it. The wars in South Africa and Japan followed soon after, the expenses for armies and navies have gone up vertigin- ously every year since I899, the peace of Europe is more unstahle than ever. The only protest made by Leo XIII against his exclusion was the removal of his representa- tive from the Hague where the Con- gress was held. Since then the busi- ness of the Holy See with Holland has been conducted by a Charge d'- Affaies, hut now a step towards more normal relations has been taken by the appointment of Mgr. Tacci-Por- celli. There is no greater mistake in the world than bing diseontentcd.--W. E. Norris. 7 Become all it is possible for you to become, AN HISTORICAL ARTICLE. The Fountain of All Religious Orders, Order of St. Benedict. By Very Rev. Augastiae Stocker, D. l)., O. S. B. The Benedictine Order, founded by St. Benedict (480-543) of Nursia, in It:fly, is the ohlest monustic institute (}f signifi,.anee in the western elmrch. St. lcncdict himself scarcely l)retcndod to establish a worhl-;..ide order, but, usslstcd by the Holy Spirit, he wrote a rule which for centuries compolled the a(hnira(ion and submission of near- ly all lhose who aimed at the perfec- tion of rcliglous llfe. It tony therefore be said, without deviating from histor- ical truth, that the principle of unity in the llenedictinc Order is the pri- mary rule for persons wielding the seep- trc of jurisdietiou over the various monasteries of the order. Indeed, each Benedictine monastery enjoys home rule und its metal)ors reumin incardinated for life in the house of their profes- sion. ]u order, however, to gain the strength which comes from consolida- tion, ecrtaiu groups of monasteries coalesce into cougregations, each with a presiding abbot, who has about the same relation to the abbots of the sev- orM houses as an archbishop has to his suffragan bishops. All tim abbots of] a congregation, meeting in .joint ses-! siGn, may legislate for the whole con-: gregation, but the essential autonomy of the several abbeys remains intact. Nor hns the appointment of an Abbot Prianatc by Leo XHI given central gov- ernment to the order, for the Abbot Primate is not nmch more than the adviser of the order, the promoter of its gener'fl welfure, and its spokesm'tn before the Holy See. In accor danc0 with this constitution of the order its propagation is undertaken by individ- ual monasteries, not by congregations; for a congregation as such has neither men nor means. The Benedictine Order has had its wn'ious fates, like the church itself, durillg the course of centuries that have elapsed since its origin. Soveral branches have issued from it, whirl b while retaining the rule of the vener- able patriarch, have developed eharac- teristie features of their own, like the Camahlolese. the Cistercians, the Trap- pists, the Olivetans. All these might, with perfect propriety, be called Bene- dictines; but. as a nmtter of fact, they have assumed different names, and the appellation of Benedictines is reserved for the so-called black-gowned monks who have never owned another father or founder but St. Benedict. Hence, when we speak of the Benedictine Or- der without further qualification, we moan the black-gowned monks to the exclusion of Trappists, Cistercians and other derivative branches. This order reached its zenith in the boginnlng of the Fourteenth century with 37,000 monasteries, and saw its poorest days in tho beginning of the Nineteenth cen- tury, when it had dwindled to about 50 houses all told. But since the middlo of the /ast century there has been a great reviwfl, and within tho last 60 years, the order has more than trebled its membership. Benedictine monachism in America is ,a fruit of this rejuvenation. I ant not now concerned with the monks that im- migrated from Bavaria and settled in Pennsylvaniathey lmve grown into a large congregation embracing eleven monasteries with 794 monks. The Swiss- American congregation, to which New Subiaco Abbey belongs, originatod in Switzerland, having as its parents two famous monasteries of that ancient land of liberty aml nmdern E1 Dorado of world travelers. Einsiedeln, Switzer- land, sent a eolony to St. Meiurad, In- diana, in 1854. while Engelberg dis- patched an independent expedition to Conception. Missouri. in 1873. St. Bene. diet. Arkansas. which later on took the name of Subiaeo. branched off from St. Meinrad in 1878; but, whereas St. Meinrad did the planting, Einsiedeln took care of the watering, and thus Subiaeo is rather a daughter of siedeln than of St. Meinrad. So is Richardton, North Dakota, whose founder, Rt. Rev. Vincent Wehrle, present Bishop of Bismark, wts a monk of Einsiedeln. St. Meinrad has an off- spring in Louisiana, St. Joseph's Abbey at Covington. while Mr. Angel, Orogon, was fathered by Engelborg. All the abbeys mentioned, together with the newly founded (from Conception Mis- souri priory of Cottonwood, Idaho) coalese into the Swiss-Amorican con- gregation, numbering seven monasteries with 400 monks. Besides these two congregations--the American Cassinese and the Swiss- American. counting together 1,194 menks--thcrc m an abbey at Sacred Itcart, Oklahoma. affiliated with the eongregation of Subiac% Italy. In ad- dition to the approximately 1,250 monks, there .are in these United States 2,214 Benedictine nuns, mostly under direct episcopal jurisdiction. It might be asked: What is the spe- cific purpose of the Benedictine Order Such a question would be pertinent with regard to orders that sprung into existence when the world was covered with monastic establishments. For these were expected to verify their raison d'etre by some special need in the chorch. But the Beuedictine Order, finding the field unoccupied, did not arise under the princil)le of division of labor; it simply intended to give a form for serving God more perfectly. Now, tho service of God means very often the service of man with a view of helping him reach his God-given de- tiaation. Hence, the purpose of the Benedictine Order coincides with the purposo of the ehurc.h, and no work of hers is foreign to its spirit. According- ly we find the order, for many centu- ries, largely identified with the achieve- men(s of the ehurch. Up to the Four- teenth century it gave the church 20 Popes, 200 Cardinals, 1,700 Archbishops, 15.000 Bishol)s , and nearly all the mis. sionaries for the conversion of Europe. Being essentin]]y local on qccoant of lhe indcl)cndenee of each monastery, it follows further that the Benedictine Order is especially coneerned with the welfare of the church of uny locality in which it finds itself, and a nat- ural tcmlency to fall in liue with the 1)l'ns of the Bishops within whose dio- cese tim monastery is situated. The Bishop of the diocese ordains the priests of the monastery, and, while thus es- tablisMng an intimate re]ntionship with the monastic clergy, gains them as: I  voted assistants for spreading the bless- ings of the gospel in his diocese. I will bring the present article to a close with an explmmtion of the name Subiaeo, which used to be such a puzzle to everybody before it became more gcneralIy known. And even now the sound of tho name is more familiar than its meaning or the logic of its adop- tion. Subiaco is qn ohl place in Italy, 42 miles east of Rome, deriving its name from an artificial lake that used to adorn a plateau above the town; for Subiaco means "belew the lake." It is, however, tho historical bearing of the name that caused its transplanta- tion to Arkansas. At Subiaco St. Bene- dict commenced his monastic career) and there, dwelling in a cave under the eye of heaven for three years, lie nla- tured into the great law-giver of westeln monasticism. In remembrance, there- fore, of the cradle of the Benedictine Order, the Benedictine establishment in Arkansas ws called New Subiaco Ab- bey. Because there exists to the pres- ent day a monastery at Subiaco, Italy, we had, in order to avoid confusion when the affairs of the various abbeys come before the Holy See, to distin- guish ours by the profix 'new." Such a danger of confusion not existing with regard to the town or college, they are simply named Subiaeo and Subiaco Col- lege; but the abbey, should it reach the age of a thousand years or more, will still be New Subiaco Abbey, at Subiaco, Ark. The Panlist Fathers from Winchester, Tenn., conducted a very successful mis- sion for the Catholics and non-Catholics ning Sunday, April 30, and ending Sun- of E1 Dorado during the week begin- day, May 7. As there is no Catholic church in the city, the Rev. Father Doyle, who attends the parish frout Lit- tle Rock, secured the use of the court- house hall for the mission. Three services were held .each day daring the week. An early mass was road for those whose occupations pre, vented them from attending the regu- lar mission mass, which was said at 7 o'clock. A brief moral instruction was delivered at the early service, while the regular moal mission sermons were preached at the later mass. The lectures for non-Catholics were given in the evening together with the answering of queries received through the "Question Box," The evening services wero very well attended. Many of the non-Catholics of the place had never before seen a Catholic priest, and one .elderly gentleman expressed his i ploasure and surprise to discover that the Catholic priest "is pretty nigh like all other folks." The "Question Box" excited the keenest interest and the missionaries covered nearly the entire field of Cath- olic faith and practico in answering the queries and objections which they received. The results of the mission were very gratifying. More than a score of per- sons were reclaimed to the c.hurch and ahnost all of the adult Catholics of tho place nmde their Easter duty. The non- Catholic lectures led several to .ask for admission into the church. Eleven were baptized and an inquiry class of four was ]eft under the direction of tho pastor. The children's mission was preached during the latter part of the week and about twenty childreu were in attend- anee, nearly all of whom went to con- fession on Friday evening. A class of twelve will receive their first IIoly Communion on June 25. Father Doyle .and his parishioners have already taken steps preparatory to building a church. In the meantime mass will be said at the Garrett Hotol. Mrs. D. Fortiner generously offered tho use of her hotel parlor for that pur- pose. "Jones is so dreadfully primitive I " 'What's his latest" "Why, we were at the opera house the other night, and a stage hand re- moved a table, and Jones yelled, 'Sup% Supel ' We were dreadfully mortified.' ) "I was at a dinner the other night) and Jones sat next to me. When he saw the row of spoons and forks and knives beside his plate he beckoned to the waiter. 'Say, boy,' he hoarsely mut- tered, 'I guess you spi/led .tho spoon holder I  ' ' ' ' Well, it's lucky he's rich. ) ' ' ' Ain't it ? ' '--Cleveland Plain Dealer. FOLLOWING A PRECEDENT. Writes a friend from Cannes; "I heard a story the other night at a dinner given here which, I believe, a true one, and as it might amuse your readers I pass it on. A little boy wished to give a Bible to his mother on her birthday, and before writing her name on the flyleaf he took down a book from her shelf to see the proper way of setting about the matter. Literally copying the first inscription that he found he wrote: "With the kind re"-ds of the author. '/ " I: [ l ! t ! (