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April 23, 1943     Arkansas Catholic
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April 23, 1943

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PAGE EIGHT THE GUARDIAN, APRIL 23, 1943 The Gregorian Calendar ReformGradually Winning Over Eastern Churches By Rev. A. Chimi, O.S.B.M., (N.C.W.C. Easter Supplement) By Gregorian reform we mean the amendment of Julian Calendar. The Julian Calendar was intro- duced in the Roman Empire by Julius Caesar in the year 46 B.C. Later it was adopted by the whole of Christendom. But the Julian calculation was not correct. It made the year slightly too long. In.the course of centuries this became so ob- vious and so striking that reform was urged, particularly by Church authorities, who felt the need of it in connection with the Eccles- iastical Calendar. This was ac- complished in the year 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. The reform was adopted imme- diately by most of the Western Catholics, followed later by the Protestants. It was introduced in Englan d in 1852. Eastern Europe Dissents In Eastern Europe affairs went differently. The dissident church- es, together with States, decided to remain in the Old Style cal- endar, evidently resenting adop- tion of the Catholic reform. Con- tinuing in the Julian error, they found in the twentieth century that they were 13 days behind the time. This impelledmost of the States to adopt Gregorian RefOrm. Bulgaria adopted it in 1916, Rus- sia in 1921, Greece in 1921, and Roumania in 1924. Concerning the dissident, church- es, Meletius IV, Patriarch of Con- stantinople, convened a synod of all autocephalous churches in Constantinople in 1923. Among other things, they unanimously de- creed to introduce Gregorian re- form in their Church Calendar. This decree, however has been executed only by some of the churches; namely, the Church of Patriarch Tychon, the Church of Jerusalem and the Church of Bul- garia. In Poland it encountered bitter opposition. An important question remains concerning Eastern Catholics. What is their attitude toward Gregorian reform? There is no doubt the authorities approve of it. Many of them, under more favorable circumstances actually adopted it in the course of cen- turies. These included the 'Italo- Graeoi, the Chaldaei and the Mar- onitae in 1606, the Syrians about 1836, the Graeco-Melchitae in 1858. Others, due tb adverse conditions, refrained from adopting the New Style calender. This last statement deserves greater explanation, particularly with reference to Ukrainian Catho- lics, who form the majority among Eastern Rites. They are usually known hs Uniats, because they i came into union with Rome toward the close of the sixteenth century. They now number about five mil- lion and inhabit Chiefly Western Ukraine (Galicia). Many of them in the last five decades came to the United States, Canada and South America. The question is being raised, why do they not introduce Greg- orian Reform in their Ecclesiasti- cal Calendar? The answer is simply that they have encounter- ed difficulties which one of the Latin Rite in the West cannot easily understand. The whole matter is so entangled with na- tional and political affairs that a good sized book might be written on the subject. Some of Chief Obstacles We will point out only some chief obstacles. First, there is a strained rela- tion between Ukrainians and their neighbors of Latin Rite, the Poles. This had its origin in the fight for EASTER GREETINGS oS,00e,- 106 W. Capitol Ph. 9656 EASTF GREETINGS LITTLE ROCK PACKING COMPANY Little Rock, Arkansas Chaplain-Editor The Very Rev. Msgr. Thus. L. Keany, Chaplain of St. Mary's Academy, has several other titles to his credit. He is also Editor of The Guardian, author of the column, 'Qui Vive?', pastor of St. Rose Church at Carlisle, Coach and Athletic Director of the St. Mary's Basket Ball Team, form- "or coach of Little Rock College, and professor at St. John's Semi- nary. national existence. Ukrainians claim that Poles have not neglect- ed any means to effect the fusion of Western Ukrainians into one Polish people. Many of the il- lustrious Ukrainian families, by contact with the Latin Rite, be- came Poles. Thereby they were lost to the Ukrainian people. These and similar facts created an idea among many Ukrainians that to insure their national existence, they should distinguish between themselves and their neighbors in everything possible, including Church Calendar. They felt that the difference in Church holidays would tend to set up distinctions between the two peoples. The second great obstacle is the radical element from within and the foes from without. 'This ele- ment never failed to avail itself of such opportunities to incite the people generally against the Uk- rainian Catholics, blaming them for paving'the road toward Po- Ionization of Ukrainian stock. The third obstacle is the pow- er of long-standing custom itself. People accustomed to celebrate holidays on certain days resent any change. Reform Desire Grows Nevertheless, the tendency to- ward Gregorian reform is growing stronger. Much publicity has been given to it. Nova Zori, influen- tial Catholic paper, has led in this respect. His Excellency the Most Roy. Gregory Chomishyn, Bishop of Stanislaviw, even attempted to introduce the new calendar. But the time was not ripe, and the matter had to be deferred. Referring to Ukrainians in the United States and Canada, it is obvious that they came here with the same attitude concerning the question of calendar as they breth- ren in Europe. But recently a very strong movement has been started toward the reform of cal- endar. Conformity with the rest of the people in this country is keenly desired particularly in con- nection with Christmas, New Year and Good Friday. Great work has been done in this respect by Ukrainsky Visty and recently by Swttlo in Canada, both Catholic papers. The effort has not been in vain. Many communities ap- plied to the Bishop's Chancery in Canada for the change of calendar. In order to prevent disruption of communities, the Most Rev. Basil Ladyka, Bishop ,of Ukrainians in Canada, in a decree, in 1940 re- quired that those communities in which 95 per cent are in favor of the change, would be granted this change. The result was that over 70 communities have adopted Gregorian reform, mainly in Al- berta. The others are slowly fol- lowing them. In the United States the same situation exists. Any community that has more or less unanimously agreed upon Gregorian reform, may apply to the Most Rev. Con- stantJne Bohachevsky, Bishop of Ukrainians in United States, and Happy Easter to Readers of The Guardian is the wish of William E. Stover and Associates in the .... Palmer's National Beauty School Complete 6-Mo. Course $60 Easy Terms 50c Cash down payment Balance on time Diplomas Granted Positions Waitingl Write for full Information 116 Main N. Little Rock Compliments of 'BEAN Wm. T. Stover Co., Inc. MUSIC CO., Inc. r r 'Hospital and Physicians Supplies 205-0007 Sixth st00t Phone 9865 716 M Little Rock, Ark. Phone 4-3533 Little Rock, Arkansas George Barnard, (Written for N.C.W.C. Easter Supplement) One of the stand-by topics for debate among serious youth, either in private conversation or on those more colorful occasions when young people argued in public, both for their own experience and for the edification of their fellows, used to be whether or not it was to our advantages that the vision of the future was concealed. It would be so much better, so the ardent young folks used to argue, if we could see ahead, and know how things would stand with us in this year or that, so that we could' plan. What's the use of planning to be a musician if some new invention will make the emploYment of musicians unnecessary? What's the use of getting mar- ried and raising a family if there is going to be another war? And so on. The complete answer to this sort of inbred caution is that if we were to know the future, and act, in our limited wisdom, to meet, the situation, the world would be paralyzed overnight. Pre-Wr of War Even if we were to think about the possible result of every action we should soon be reduced to a state of almost complete inacti- vity. What would have happened in Englarld, say, in the spring of 1939, if the people could have known that in the fall they would be committed to a war that would certainly last three and a half years, and that even then the peo- ple would be asking themselves, without seeing any answer, when will it all end? To begin with the people would have started moving themselves about the country in an effort to evade the consequences o the war that threatened. Which way would the enemy attack, they would have asked themselves, shifting this way and that like chess-men in a riot, in an attempt to beat the horror that threatened. Even rulers cannot foresee the thoves in the face of sudd'en or reatened catastrophies. When the war started children were moved from the cities to the coast. When there were threats to the coasts some of them were moved back to the cities. But would it be a happy world if we could know our future? Would I be consoled to know that in a matter of months, or yesrs, I might be inactive because of ill- ness? Would I have been consoled to know in my youth that I was de- stined to spend three years as a soldier with no military ambition; i that I would endure things and see things that would be a mem- ory till my dying day? Would a man contemplate mar- riage if he could see in advance the struggle he might have to bring up a brood of children, with the fluctuatious of health and for- tune which are certain to come into play? God's Great Mercy It is God's great mercy that the obtain the permission to change to the new style. More or less, the situation ex- ists concerning other Eastern Ca- i tholics as with Ukrainians. Greg- !orian reform, however, is bound to become universal. future has been kept from us. In- stead of a knowledge of the future God has given us, many of us, the love of adventure, delight in the uncertain, a pleasure in facing odds. If there are black spots in the future we do not dwell on them now if we do not know of them. When we meet them we always find strength to face them; and a point to note is that we are not usually called upon to face calamity alone. If you must, therefore, let your mind feed on future tragedies which you think are bound to come, remember, for your consolation, there are always, in this good world', friends who will give you their hand to help you over the rough places. It is foolish then, isn't it, to try to pierce the cloud which God, in His mercy towards us, has drop- ped over all that is to come? Yet millions of people hang on to the absurd and contradictory readings of those who imagine, or pretend, that they can see in the future by considering the movements of the stars. This thing is certain. That whatever the darkness over the earth today, there is sunshine ahead. And the Resurrection is tae promise of that. Holy Sepulchre Basilica Once Many Churches (N.C.W.C. Easter Supplement) Jerusalem.--The Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, which is so prom- inently in Christian minds throughout the world with the ap- proach of Holy Week, actually consisted in many churches early in its history, historians tell us. The foundations of the Basilica may be said to have been laid down in the year 325. At that time, the Emporer Constantine or- dered two churches to be built--- one over the Tomb of Our Lord 8nd the other at the place where his mother, St. Helena, had found the True Cross. In the course of time, these structures came to be destroyed by the Persians, Egyp- tians and Arabs, to be rebuilt by the Christians. It happened, though, that each time the church- es were reconstructed, new ones were added. And so the total grew until the arrival in Jeru- salem of the Crusaders, who put these separate edifices under one roof. Following the Crusades, earth- quakes and fires damaged the structure to varying degrees, and in the different restorations it be- came reduced in size. It has en- joyed for some time the propor- tions it has today, when its ven- erable walls are supported by bevms of wood and steel. ;Not only Catholics, but Armen- ians, Greeks, Copts and Sylians officiate in the Basilica of the Holy epulchre. Union Motor (o., Inc00 Distributors Lincoln Zephyr - Mercury Ford Cars - Trucks 410 WEST THIRD STREET NORTH LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS Mr. St. Mary's Academy Top picture is an imposing view of Mt. St. Mary's Academy, ing up from Van Buren Street. The Academy is located in Heights, one of the loveliest sections of the city. In this are evident the beauty and age of the architecture. Below is shown the gymnasium, a part of St. Mary's. This ing is well equipped, and thoroughly modern. It is the many activities and much fun. EASTER GREETINGS Ben J, Booth Roofing and Sheet Metal 1900 Lincoln Ave. Phone Little Rock, Arkansas Dress Up For Easter At Cohn's DRESS UP . . . because it's an Easter tradition I AT COHN'S . . . because now, more than ever before, it's important to buy quality l Banking Service That's Complete. GOOD CLOTHES ARE A GOOD INVESTMENT You'll find every modern' banking service waiting for you at Worthen's.. and you'll like the friendly atmosphere of our organization. Visit us soon. W. B. WORTHEN CO. m.m. n corn I BANKERS s "SINCE 1877" MAIN AT FOURTH Member F.D.I.C.