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April 20, 1945     Arkansas Catholic
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April 20, 1945

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L PAGE FOUR , THE GU00xRDIAN OFFiCiAL ORGAN OF THE CATHOLIC DIOCESE OF LITTLE ROCIK PUBLISHED WEEKLY By THE GUARDIAN pRESS, inc. 3@9Vs WEST SECOND STREET Rntered ae eeeond-eee manta" Martin II1, 1011, M tim po4t ethm M Litt Rock, Arkaasas, reader te &amp;et ot Cmallnrs of March 8, lSft. SUBSCRIPTION PRIC2:$1.00 the OFFICIAL DvOCBSAN ORGAN Tire Gtmrdlon |a the offlcJ re'Inn of tke Dkese of LlttJe   I IN'a F Goal thut it may be am msrmeet r.bampien a4 the muwo of rllhto s(d.4 ud truth and on ardent defendw of the rdlsion we all love an w lt ! eztend to it my bleuJnl with the obscure hqm that Ite emrsm" may 114 lea 8 and prosperous, JOHN B. MOUI& Bishop of LJttis Itsc EDITOil VERY REV. MONSIGNOR THOMAS L. KEANY, Ph. D. MANAGING EDITOR  BUSINESS MANAGER All communications about Tke Guardian, busineos and editorhd, ahcmld be handled through-- REVEREND THOMAS $. PRENDF..RGAST 309t/s Weet 2rod Street. Telephone S4,BS All ortlcles and news items intended |or publication should reach The Guardian office net late than Monday st noon. Signature  party sub- mittioi copF for publication is netemrF lit all |netamce8. SPONSORS O4 iIRVICE Picture &wvice---4Jfights of Columlms of Arkoamus Blytheville-Osceoio Conne/i No Z867 811L0O Little Rock Council. No. 81Z for 1044 and 1946  $44.00 ParaEould Council. No 1TIS._ 811.00 Fort Smith Cvuucil. No. 108.._ $22.0| Pocubontas Council.No. 1448 |l-/.0e Texarkuna Council No 9ale $1-/90 Stuttgart-Slovactown Council, No. 2"/80 62400 Joneeboro Council, No. 1-/02 Heleut Council lqa. 17-/0 ....................... $17.50 Pine Bluff Council No. 1118 $23.00 APRIL 20, 1945 BY GUIDO GONELLA This is the second of a series of articles having for their i general theme the United Nations Conference in Sah Francisco I in its relation to the world of today and tomorrow. They ares being contributed by famous thinkers from various nations I round the world The views of these writers will differ, and even may conflict, on some points. The printing of them gives ! no editorial sanction. Taken together, however, they should light up facts of the San Francisco meeting from numerous in- teresting ang!es and give a vigorous point to departure for Catholic thought. Prof. Guido Goneila contributes this, the second article. Professor Gonella is a celebrated author, journalist and au- thority on the Papal peace program. He was a brilliant mem- ber of the Osservatore Romano staff, leaving that post last year to become editor of II Popolo, the newly-founded daily paper of the Christian Democratic Party in' Rome. He was arrested on orders of the Fascist Party in 1939 and imprisoned in Rome on the charge of being anti-Fascist. He was released after a vigorous protest was launched by the Papal Secretary of State. He is the author of "A World to Reconstruct," pre- pared under the direction of the Bishops' Committee on the Pope's Peace Points, of the National Catholic Welfare Con- ference. ROME (By Radio) : Since the Yalta Conference, His Holiness Pope Plus Xll lies spoken to theworld on only one occasion. This was on Passion Sunday, from the loggia of St. Peter's, in the presence of 100,000 Romans. In this discourse, there is an explicit hint at the problems of the organization of the peace. The Pope, in fact, said: "But the reconciliation of peoples will only be able to guarantee stability if it is carried out faithfully and with justice. We cannot even suppose that after so many sad events, there is anyone who would yield to the temptation of profiting by the present condition of affairs, in order to turn to his own ad- vantage, agains(the dictates of justice, the organization of the peace," HOLY FATHER'S ANXIETY Plus XII, then, is anxious about international "loyalty," as well as about the danger that someone, violating the dictates of justice, might turn "to his own proper advantage" the new international organization. That is, the Pontiff, referring in- directly to controversies current after the Yalta Conference wished to draw attention to the necessity of not violating the principles of international morality in favor of the particular interests of this or that nation. What are the dangers which probably cause the anxiety of the Pope? It is well known that the plan of world organization work- ed out at Dumbarton Oaks set forth this fundamental rule: 'The organization is based on the principles of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving States." (Article I). Has this principle of equality been truly recognized either in the working out of the entire Dumbarton Oaks plan, or in the Yalta Conference preparing for the San Francisco Confer- ence ? It is known that in the public press, concern has been noted in regard to the danger of seeing established a hierarchy of power more severe than those of 1814 and 1919, and Forrest Davis went so far as to write in The Saturday Evening Post that "the big powers will be the pollcemen and the other nations of the world, about 70 in number, will be the public." CENTRALIZED POWER The danger of this discrimination, which would be prei- udicial to the equality of all the nations and hence to inter- 1national justice--since it does not give the weak nations the same rights which are given to the stronger ones--is also de- tected in the very plan which is to be pesented at San Fran- cisco. In fact, in this plan, while the assembly into which all the States are admitted is to have a function which is almost formal and academic, the Security Council actually centralizes five great powers a true and actual right of veto upon any measure of a punitive character. It is true that at Yaha, the Russian request was not accepted for the recognition of the right of veto in regard both to repressive measures and also the submission of a controversy to the Council. There was, however, granted a right of veto in favor of the stronger na- tions, which constitutes a privilege affecting the core of the new international organization. THE RIGHT OF VETO No one intends to deny that the great powers, since they have the greater responsibility, must have greater influence, but the exclusivity of the right of veto is a grave privilege and one which threatens the democratic character of the new soci- ety of United Nations. In fact, while the prerogatives of the democratio assembly remain generic, the five great powers, in addition to having a permanent seat in the Security Council, and the right of veto, reserve to themselves also the right to offer the service of their armed forces for the repression of aggression. That is, they attribute to themselves alone the in- ternational police force which is to operate through a commit- tee of the greater states, composed of only the five members. Hence, democratic principles have been rejected in favor of the adoption of hierarchic principles which make a distinction among nations in regard to their strength and the particular situation they had in relation to the present war. l't is true that the requiring of unanimity in decisions had paralyzed the work of the Geneva League, but between the two extremesunanimity on the one hand and the privilege of the right of veto on the otherthere ought to have been a just middle way--that is, recognition that for a graver decision there would be required a clearer majority (for example, two- thirds of the permanent and non-permanent members of the Council). Thus it is that, while the new international society holds aims which it hopes to attain according to the Dumbarton Oaks planwhich will be submitted to the San Francisco Confer- ence, and which gives concrete expression to some of the prin{fibles already outlined by the Holy Father in his radio messages (for example, the necessity of removing the political and economic causes of wars, or preventing and repressing ag- gression)there is, on the other hand, a quite diverse evalua- tion in its proceedings which works to the disadvantage of the minor powers. This is true even though the requirements of a democratic international society would demand that the rights of small states could prevail on the same footing with the rights of the great powers. BASIC REQUIREMENTS Furthermore, no reference is contained in the project as to certain fundamental requirements upon which the Holy Fa- ther has more than once insisted; namely, general disarma- ment, which should eliminate even the temptation of having recourse to force; obligatory arbitration, which should assure the peaceful resolution of controversies; and the revision of treaties, which sho.uld prevent the formation of situations that might compromise international peace. In the presentation of the Dumbarton Oaks plan, how- ever, the statement was made by Cordell Hull that the project in question was "neither complete nor definite." Thus there is still reason not to despair that at San Francisco, the voice of the small nations may be heard and the will of the minorities may have its weight in the international councils. In this manner, all the "peace-loving" nations---that is, all thepowerlnthehandsofcertalanatlonswhichcouldeasi]y ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Rur i be drawn on by temptation to "turn to their own advantage"  ."x it  r,I it '% 'It Y'  7" O the international order.  () / ]"   ] [ [IJ /-i( X (i,i l |II61NN As all know, in the Security Council there would be rap-   .,/ 1-41,.# i ,l .Jg i,J %.,'.I" lk r.ooto00 ,..0.= ,.,., =.,,__.... .__,. -.O.,,O nowers wo,,ld C"--stih,te tl.., k;.k..t o'o,,r. R,,t ,,ccodino Z name and COMPLETE address (not lnltilllll ogharwJee the llnestlone will ''rbVi 01 1  I I tr tl, t-le,.-;.t;,-,n nf yalt tk, v,t- f o-yen ,-,,,t f -l-,e- --oul A ) private anewe must he nccomFanied h s-I.lldreMd, Idmmpod envlopa. |'l ]]tt'W____ I |(_ not suffice for the adoption of repressive measures, since the decision could be executed only if none of the five great pow- r  n n  rr, /' , of thll "ANIE MAN. I | ers would be opposed. 15 /'1 I"F$O lOUtla ] 0 L,Ofe$$ ST.JOHN:r Thus the result is that there is ordained for each of the A Sin That He Is Not Sure lte by Gave His Consent To ? Rev. Anthony It is advisable to confess all such sins, or at least to bring up the the matter with one's confessor, if the matter was grave. Oftentimes peace of mind is almost impossible if one does otherwise. Certain rules can be given, however, to guide one in the confessing of doubtful mortal sin: If the penitent is not well instructed, he should tell the sins; if he is not given to grave sins, and particularly if he is scrup- ulous, he is not held to confess the conscience, neither lax nor timor- ous, he is not indeed obliged to confess the sins, but is encouraged 'to do so, for advice and for tran- quility of conscience; if he has a lax conscience, or is given to ex- cusing himself too readily, he gen- erally ought to declare the sins, because the presumption is against him. If you diligently examine your conscience, and the doubt about whether the sin is mortal keeps up, you are not compelled to con- fess it if you do not wish to do so, unless you are lax. The Coun- cil of Trent defined that we are obliged to confess mortal sins of which we have consciousness. But we cannot be said to have such consciousness of a sin that we are not sure is mortal. In order to receive Absolution, one must confess some real sin, whether venial or mortal. Peni- tents who frequently go to the sacrament sometimes accuse them- selves only of doubtful matter, like outbursts of temper that were perhaps involuntary. Persons such as this should always accuse doubtful sins; if he has a medium themselves of some sin of their past life. If the sin has been con- fessed before, it is not necessary to go into detail about it again. For instance, the penitent might confess that he has been given to sinning against a certain Com- mandment. He would not need to tell exactly what the sin was. The details that the priest needed to know were confessed before. If a person has only venial sins to confess, he must have the pur- pose of making special efforts to avoid at least one of them in the future. God will not forgive any sin, mortal or venial, unless we have true contrition for it. * * i IVhat is meant by blasphemy? By blasphemy is meant con- temptuous, insulting, abusive lan- guage uttered aR'ainst God, the saints or holy things. This sin is so great that in the Old Testa- ment those who were found guilty of it were put to death (Levit. 24:16. not only those who have declared war on Germany, even if at the last hour, but also those who have maintained a dignified neutrality and are actually excluded from the San Francisco Conference--would be enabled to bring to bear their adtive contribution to the reconstruction of the new order, to the elaboration of a much-desired international "Bill of Rights." The words enunciated by President Roosevelt in his ad- dress of March 1, 1945, delivered to the Congress of the Unit- ed States following the Yalta Conference, give hope that the international loyalty and justice so greatly desired by the Holy Father may find concrete realization in new plans for recon- struction.. COOPERATION OF WORLD The President on that occasion stated: "The structure of world peace cannot be the work of one man alone, of a single organism or of one nation alone. Neither can the peace be called an American peace, or a BritiSh peace, or a Russian, or French or Chinese peace, nor can the peace be of one or of four nations It must be a peace worthy of the united effort of the entire world. It cannot be, as many maintain, a struc- ture that from its beginning comes forth perfect. But it can be, and it will be, a peace based on the solid and just prin- ciples of the Atlantic Charter, on the concept of the dignity of! the human being, and on the guarantees of liberty." The contribution of peoples who, like the Polish people, have made an offering of the sacrifice of millions of lives for the triumph of international iustlee, and the contribution of neutral nations themselves that have resisted for years the al- lurements of the Nazi nation, will be able to do much toward the realization of that "united effort" to which President Roosevelt. refers, will be able to give the new international order that universal character which alone can assume success for it by avoiding the danger that international society may be transformed into a coalition of interests opposed one to another C, S, tGeneral President The Nation has greatest of Franklin which it was its joy since the time Lincoln. The !passing away. The ordinary walk of a father, for his was extraordinary. not narrowed tion but the wherever want, plagued people, velt moved at once situation in as far The South has the passing away dent, for he more vious President ly to its into office when the whole nation chaos he at once in motion toward some of his dent was severely people who did not of the overall pict The President set t the poor and the dl carried a truly hur his noble body. T South rebuild and launched a program tion and soil buildi thousands of CCC b and eased up the t situation. W.P.A. programs contributed witnessed in the SoU ferent farm programs stances in which tl was endeavoring to toward economic s Farm Security Admi its rehabilitation pr program in which t] helped poor people themselves after the had dashed them agai of misfortune. Cont subsidy programs, were all intended foI the farmer. The di agencies set up by t have certainly helpe and the southern arI programs -in school, programs and the lig! stances of the Presid tude and human intt ordinary people of the President Roosevelt on, but his spirit sli years to come. His s[ the forest, in the fi flood control of the wherever human inn a. 00Not onl: ;% America has the decisions c ence, declares n Congress the Senate in which six ands of libert: orraulated to ions', in Polan( War aims, 6f surely the esta tst a.nd lasting ,. and self-deter Peoples who t IFEE CU ods Obtainab Ith & Main INE BLUFF question. Here in tl, have much to reminl keen interest in hum lill ][)| ! Tl'll of the programs inn . ilia u/ lrJ him shall continue ai will be abetter South] ..  them. President R001] ,.,u ..... q tb former s friePll e liUff -- "--- // -ri4 4tre HOTEL K-  I Ep, t .,'-..._-.._-  _...; o, "> -'P;;;rn9 J" I1,( /qCLAM.TALR$< [ AND ON BUTA.G FIEL] ' "TONO ONE  .... , ........ -x, 9 'West 2nd r. .._:-- ; _- Pin. ,I.,l/'.,l i ..... 1"-- I' "- : ' , JAI " __ - /i.aU.Rl(14r,Rl(14r 15OY,RON "  ..__-'. ..... " / " ,TON'TH'5 M,qN OVEr'tO 1' ,I E .,. 00O.,E0,0p _ '?4Te-NANO PUMP-///,Naw i\\; ONTIL-TtIa FIRI iOOT.iWOSrsavllloma "[ -.-- VO00DIfiL: FORi <t % ) IMpORTANTA/, gt,l"l NOT <. N G ols ,.,; ,.,lltl:g iv:, . lull r. HEARD TH T -- ""''"'""=":" " "' 1' i,A --